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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Prestige Brands Holdings Inc was -2.16. The lowest was -4.19. And the median was -2.47.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Prestige Brands Holdings Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.7811||+||0.528 * 0.9676||+||0.404 * 0.9878||+||0.892 * 1.2862||+||0.115 * 0.8027|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.99||+||4.679 * -0.0454||-||0.327 * 0.9004|
|This Year (Dec15) TTM:||Last Year (Dec14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $85.1 Mil.|
Revenue was 200.195 + 206.065 + 192.132 + 260.295 = $858.7 Mil.
Gross Profit was 116.784 + 119.94 + 112.236 + 149.509 = $498.5 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $228.2 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,641.0 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $12.3 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $25.0 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $214.5 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $86.7 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,447.0 Mil.
Net Income was 27.995 + 31.803 + 26.173 + 21.646 = $107.6 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + -0.451 + 16.145 = $15.7 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 45.861 + 47.069 + 43.521 + 75.395 = $211.8 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $84.7 Mil.
Revenue was 197.606 + 181.269 + 145.702 + 143.053 = $667.6 Mil.
Gross Profit was 111.745 + 102.542 + 81.866 + 78.837 = $375.0 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $200.8 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,680.6 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $13.1 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $15.2 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $168.5 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $91.0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,638.0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(85.085 / 858.687)||/||(84.694 / 667.63)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(119.94 / 667.63)||/||(116.784 / 858.687)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (228.155 + 12.302) / 2640.999)||/||(1 - (200.762 + 13.089) / 2680.596)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(15.244 / (15.244 + 13.089))||/||(25.009 / (25.009 + 12.302))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(214.513 / 858.687)||/||(168.474 / 667.63)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1447.032 + 86.721) / 2640.999)||/||((1637.961 + 91.034) / 2680.596)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(107.617 - 15.694||-||211.846)||/||2640.999|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Prestige Brands Holdings Inc has a M-score of -2.65 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Prestige Brands Holdings Inc Annual Data
Prestige Brands Holdings Inc Quarterly Data