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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Perry Ellis International Inc was 3.25. The lowest was -3.18. And the median was -2.57.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Perry Ellis International Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9487||+||0.528 * 0.9598||+||0.404 * 0.9531||+||0.892 * 1.0107||+||0.115 * 0.911|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0155||+||4.679 * -0.0519||-||0.327 * 0.9349|
|This Year (Jan16) TTM:||Last Year (Jan15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $124.4 Mil.|
Revenue was 214.363 + 205.439 + 213.299 + 266.414 = $899.5 Mil.
Gross Profit was 79.73 + 73.295 + 75.942 + 90.1 = $319.1 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $366.8 Mil.
Total Assets was $622.4 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $63.9 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $14.3 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $275.9 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $148.0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $133.1 Mil.
Net Income was -17.695 + 2.273 + -1.281 + 9.411 = $-7.3 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + -5.121 + 0 = $-5.1 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 11.527 + -1.838 + 60.144 + -39.668 = $30.2 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $129.7 Mil.
Revenue was 217.686 + 211.44 + 203.532 + 257.314 = $890.0 Mil.
Gross Profit was 74.568 + 70.307 + 70.464 + 87.665 = $303.0 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $398.9 Mil.
Total Assets was $685.0 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $64.6 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $12.9 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $268.8 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $158.8 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $172.1 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(124.405 / 899.515)||/||(129.736 / 889.972)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(73.295 / 889.972)||/||(79.73 / 899.515)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (366.779 + 63.908) / 622.447)||/||(1 - (398.942 + 64.633) / 684.989)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(12.933 / (12.933 + 64.633))||/||(14.318 / (14.318 + 63.908))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(275.863 / 899.515)||/||(268.783 / 889.972)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((133.076 + 148.022) / 622.447)||/||((172.109 + 158.772) / 684.989)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-7.292 - -5.121||-||30.165)||/||622.447|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Perry Ellis International Inc has a M-score of -2.79 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Perry Ellis International Inc Annual Data
Perry Ellis International Inc Quarterly Data