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Pfizer Inc (NYSE:PFE)
Beneish M-Score
-2.67 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

Pfizer Inc has a M-score of -2.67 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

PFE' s 10-Year Beneish M-Score Range
Min: -3.16   Max: -1.49
Current: -2.67

-3.16
-1.49

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Pfizer Inc was -1.49. The lowest was -3.16. And the median was -2.55.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Pfizer Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 0.9763+0.528 * 1.0066+0.404 * 1.0485+0.892 * 0.9721+0.115 * 1.0434
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1.0275+4.679 * -0.0339-0.327 * 1.0115
=-2.67

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Mar15) TTM:Last Year (Mar14) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $8,920 Mil.
Revenue was 10864 + 13118 + 12361 + 12773 = $49,116 Mil.
Gross Profit was 9026 + 10416 + 9993 + 10311 = $39,746 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $49,443 Mil.
Total Assets was $160,640 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $11,527 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $5,341 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $14,161 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $20,222 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $29,370 Mil.
Net Income was 2376 + 1228 + 2666 + 2912 = $9,182 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + -1 + 0 = $-1 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 685 + 5398 + 4463 + 4087 = $14,633 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $9,399 Mil.
Revenue was 11353 + 13558 + 12643 + 12973 = $50,527 Mil.
Gross Profit was 9308 + 10764 + 10356 + 10731 = $41,159 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $57,793 Mil.
Total Assets was $171,808 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $12,347 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $6,092 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $14,178 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $24,790 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $27,649 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(8920 / 49116) / (9399 / 50527)
=0.18161088 / 0.18601936
=0.9763

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(10416 / 50527) / (9026 / 49116)
=0.81459418 / 0.80922714
=1.0066

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (49443 + 11527) / 160640) / (1 - (57793 + 12347) / 171808)
=0.62045568 / 0.59175359
=1.0485

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=49116 / 50527
=0.9721

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(6092 / (6092 + 12347)) / (5341 / (5341 + 11527))
=0.33038668 / 0.31663505
=1.0434

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(14161 / 49116) / (14178 / 50527)
=0.28831745 / 0.28060245
=1.0275

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((29370 + 20222) / 160640) / ((27649 + 24790) / 171808)
=0.30871514 / 0.30521862
=1.0115

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(9182 - -1 - 14633) / 160640
=-0.0339

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Pfizer Inc has a M-score of -2.67 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Pfizer Inc Annual Data

Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14
DSRI 1.00431.01111.0470.91241.57890.76570.89240.97610.92880.9634
GMI 1.02611.00641.09660.92291.01191.06360.98570.95611.00761.009
AQI 0.86450.96261.03041.07841.22420.98080.99990.97991.03660.9808
SGI 0.96771.02041.0010.99751.03551.30311.00140.83750.94380.9616
DEPI 0.84841.05910.97190.89681.60330.56610.85070.9781.07631.0648
SGAI 1.0340.99771.00140.93270.98820.97880.99110.96191.00261.0212
LVGI 1.08410.80511.05691.24421.20020.910.9880.95460.9651.0043
TATA -0.05110.011-0.0509-0.0912-0.0373-0.0164-0.0544-0.01170.0251-0.0458
M-score -2.84-2.34-2.63-3.08-1.99-2.49-2.85-2.71-2.44-2.76

Pfizer Inc Quarterly Data

Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15
DSRI 0.96491.08181.05511.01350.94640.77740.93550.90810.96340.9763
GMI 0.95750.96830.98270.99151.00371.00381.00911.01161.0091.0066
AQI 0.97990.93950.98350.97271.03661.02031.00631.01120.98081.0485
SGI 0.84730.830.84780.89590.92620.94940.96360.96390.96160.9721
DEPI 0.9781.05050.99640.96731.07631.03111.12081.12841.06481.0434
SGAI 0.96260.9620.99860.99431.00251.01521.00021.0181.02121.0275
LVGI 0.95460.96450.9090.90160.9650.96911.02431.01251.00431.0115
TATA -0.0023-0.00190.05780.05040.02510.019-0.0478-0.0393-0.0458-0.0339
M-score -2.67-2.58-2.28-2.31-2.44-2.62-2.78-2.76-2.76-2.67
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