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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Procter & Gamble Co has a M-score of -2.61 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Procter & Gamble Co was -1.92. The lowest was -3.16. And the median was -2.63.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Procter & Gamble Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9756||+||0.528 * 1.0204||+||0.404 * 0.9317||+||0.892 * 1.0058||+||0.115 * 0.9801|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9479||+||4.679 * -0.0175||-||0.327 * 1.0515|
|This Year (Jun14) TTM:||Last Year (Jun13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $6,386 Mil.|
Revenue was 19018 + 20559 + 22280 + 21205 = $83,062 Mil.
Gross Profit was 9099 + 9958 + 11150 + 10395 = $40,602 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $31,617 Mil.
Total Assets was $144,266 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $22,304 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $3,141 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $25,314 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $33,726 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $19,811 Mil.
Net Income was 2579 + 2609 + 3428 + 3027 = $11,643 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 138 + 20 + 43 + 5 = $206 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 4506 + 4109 + 3299 + 2044 = $13,958 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $6,508 Mil.
Revenue was 19069 + 20598 + 22175 + 20739 = $82,581 Mil.
Gross Profit was 9252 + 10254 + 11295 + 10389 = $41,190 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $23,990 Mil.
Total Assets was $139,263 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $21,666 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $2,982 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $26,552 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $30,037 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $19,111 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(6386 / 83062)||/||(6508 / 82581)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(9958 / 82581)||/||(9099 / 83062)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (31617 + 22304) / 144266)||/||(1 - (23990 + 21666) / 139263)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(2982 / (2982 + 21666))||/||(3141 / (3141 + 22304))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(25314 / 83062)||/||(26552 / 82581)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((19811 + 33726) / 144266)||/||((19111 + 30037) / 139263)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(11643 - 206||-||13958)||/||144266|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Procter & Gamble Co has a M-score of -2.61 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Procter & Gamble Co Annual Data
Procter & Gamble Co Quarterly Data