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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Procter & Gamble Co was -1.92. The lowest was -3.16. And the median was -2.64.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Procter & Gamble Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9926||+||0.528 * 0.9609||+||0.404 * 0.9579||+||0.892 * 0.9269||+||0.115 * 0.991|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9944||+||4.679 * -0.0525||-||0.327 * 1.0529|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $4,591 Mil.|
Revenue was 15755 + 16915 + 16527 + 22083 = $71,280 Mil.
Gross Profit was 7840 + 8455 + 8375 + 11426 = $36,096 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $34,317 Mil.
Total Assets was $127,508 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $19,186 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $3,047 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $21,576 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $31,357 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $19,134 Mil.
Net Income was 2750 + 3206 + 2601 + 521 = $9,078 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 21 + 35 + -18 + 446 = $484 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 3278 + 4480 + 3538 + 3988 = $15,284 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $4,990 Mil.
Revenue was 16930 + 20161 + 20792 + 19018 = $76,901 Mil.
Gross Profit was 8003 + 10078 + 10240 + 9099 = $37,420 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $31,562 Mil.
Total Assets was $130,937 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $20,043 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $3,150 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $23,408 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $31,881 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $17,364 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(4591 / 71280)||/||(4990 / 76901)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(8455 / 76901)||/||(7840 / 71280)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (34317 + 19186) / 127508)||/||(1 - (31562 + 20043) / 130937)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(3150 / (3150 + 20043))||/||(3047 / (3047 + 19186))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(21576 / 71280)||/||(23408 / 76901)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((19134 + 31357) / 127508)||/||((17364 + 31881) / 130937)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(9078 - 484||-||15284)||/||127508|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Procter & Gamble Co has a M-score of -2.85 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Procter & Gamble Co Annual Data
Procter & Gamble Co Quarterly Data