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Procter & Gamble Co (NYSE:PG)
Beneish M-Score
-2.93 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

Procter & Gamble Co has a M-score of -2.93 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

PG' s 10-Year Beneish M-Score Range
Min: -3.16   Max: -1.92
Current: -2.93

-3.16
-1.92

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Procter & Gamble Co was -1.92. The lowest was -3.16. And the median was -2.64.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Procter & Gamble Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 0.7796+0.528 * 1.0124+0.404 * 0.9349+0.892 * 1.0075+0.115 * 0.9023
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 0.9777+4.679 * -0.0478-0.327 * 1.017
=-2.93

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Mar15) TTM:Last Year (Mar14) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $4,990 Mil.
Revenue was 18142 + 20161 + 20792 + 22148 = $81,243 Mil.
Gross Profit was 8815 + 10078 + 10240 + 10410 = $39,543 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $31,562 Mil.
Total Assets was $130,937 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $20,043 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $3,150 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $24,838 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $31,881 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $17,364 Mil.
Net Income was 2153 + 2372 + 1990 + 2579 = $9,094 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 53 + 19 + 21 + 138 = $231 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 3552 + 3435 + 3633 + 4506 = $15,126 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $6,353 Mil.
Revenue was 19641 + 21099 + 20830 + 19069 = $80,639 Mil.
Gross Profit was 9601 + 10625 + 10256 + 9252 = $39,734 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $28,126 Mil.
Total Assets was $143,197 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $22,274 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $3,111 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $25,216 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $32,118 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $20,837 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(4990 / 81243) / (6353 / 80639)
=0.06142068 / 0.07878322
=0.7796

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(10078 / 80639) / (8815 / 81243)
=0.49273925 / 0.48672501
=1.0124

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (31562 + 20043) / 130937) / (1 - (28126 + 22274) / 143197)
=0.60587916 / 0.64803732
=0.9349

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=81243 / 80639
=1.0075

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(3111 / (3111 + 22274)) / (3150 / (3150 + 20043))
=0.12255269 / 0.13581684
=0.9023

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(24838 / 81243) / (25216 / 80639)
=0.3057248 / 0.31270229
=0.9777

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((17364 + 31881) / 130937) / ((20837 + 32118) / 143197)
=0.3760969 / 0.36980523
=1.017

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(9094 - 231 - 15126) / 130937
=-0.0478

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Procter & Gamble Co has a M-score of -2.93 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Procter & Gamble Co Annual Data

Jun05Jun06Jun07Jun08Jun09Jun10Jun11Jun12Jun13Jun14
DSRI 0.93341.13781.03290.95410.92010.88821.14480.93721.08680.9756
GMI 1.00420.9890.98881.00761.04210.95361.02181.03070.98921.0204
AQI 0.96461.56281.00281.00311.00991.01460.97720.98970.98810.9317
SGI 1.10381.20231.1211.06890.93821.02931.02741.03180.98691.0058
DEPI 0.94160.94630.88921.03820.97280.98321.18230.86561.12310.9801
SGAI 0.98750.98760.99380.9830.94321.07321.00260.99451.01830.9479
LVGI 1.01340.6690.95040.96641.00950.93141.00120.97541.01491.0515
TATA -0.0342-0.0219-0.0265-0.0236-0.0139-0.0258-0.0135-0.0205-0.0323-0.0175
M-score -2.63-1.95-2.47-2.55-2.64-2.69-2.36-2.60-2.57-2.61

Procter & Gamble Co Quarterly Data

Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15
DSRI 1.0441.07821.08680.93980.98250.98910.96790.9340.82790.7796
GMI 1.00330.99380.98920.99491.00281.00971.02121.01671.01551.0124
AQI 0.98990.99430.98810.98450.98110.96280.93170.95920.92560.9349
SGI 0.99640.99770.98690.99740.97930.96321.01381.01221.0141.0075
DEPI 0.94961.09411.12311.07981.07921.00160.98010.96350.91940.9023
SGAI 1.01341.01111.01830.99750.99190.9790.94560.96520.9740.9777
LVGI 0.97520.97331.01491.02721.02611.061.05151.0091.04951.017
TATA -0.0172-0.0163-0.0323-0.0251-0.0195-0.0209-0.0175-0.0374-0.0465-0.0478
M-score -2.53-2.47-2.57-2.66-2.61-2.65-2.61-2.71-2.89-2.93
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