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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Pier 1 Imports Inc was 6.79. The lowest was -4.03. And the median was -2.78.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Pier 1 Imports Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0007||+||0.528 * 1.1036||+||0.404 * 1.0209||+||0.892 * 0.9875||+||0.115 * 0.8821|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9723||+||4.679 * -0.1685||-||0.327 * 1.0312|
|This Year (May16) TTM:||Last Year (May15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $26 Mil.|
Revenue was 418.37 + 557.723 + 472.547 + 429.956 = $1,879 Mil.
Gross Profit was 148.967 + 212.292 + 178.493 + 149.518 = $689 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $610 Mil.
Total Assets was $846 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $199 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $58 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $583 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $288 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $200 Mil.
Net Income was -6.02 + 18.675 + 10.919 + 3.166 = $27 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 33.523 + 122.183 + 74.21 + -60.685 = $169 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $26 Mil.
Revenue was 436.866 + 562.375 + 484.501 + 418.622 = $1,902 Mil.
Gross Profit was 169.539 + 233.217 + 204.913 + 162.637 = $770 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $672 Mil.
Total Assets was $921 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $210 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $52 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $607 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $315 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $201 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(25.631 / 1878.596)||/||(25.938 / 1902.364)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(770.306 / 1902.364)||/||(689.27 / 1878.596)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (609.755 + 199.331) / 845.824)||/||(1 - (672.12 + 209.912) / 921.227)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(51.926 / (51.926 + 209.912))||/||(57.809 / (57.809 + 199.331))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(582.827 / 1878.596)||/||(607.027 / 1902.364)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((199.962 + 288.388) / 845.824)||/||((201.134 + 314.683) / 921.227)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(26.74 - 0||-||169.231)||/||845.824|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Pier 1 Imports Inc has a M-score of -3.23 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Pier 1 Imports Inc Annual Data
Pier 1 Imports Inc Quarterly Data