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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Prologis Inc has a M-score of -2.54 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Prologis Inc was 11.09. The lowest was -3.13. And the median was -2.48.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Prologis Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0211||+||0.528 * 0.9915||+||0.404 * 1.3009||+||0.892 * 0.9409||+||0.115 * 0.9461|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.1477||+||4.679 * -0.0257||-||0.327 * 0.9845|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Sep14) TTM:||Last Year (Sep13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $132 Mil.|
Revenue was 415.151 + 460.089 + 434.682 + 416.746 = $1,727 Mil.
Gross Profit was 290.385 + 322.676 + 300.002 + 295.739 = $1,209 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $444 Mil.
Total Assets was $24,072 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $16,771 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $639 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $245 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $557 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $8,823 Mil.
Net Income was 137.915 + 81.18 + 6.801 + 61.192 = $287 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 114.287 + 123.306 + 21.258 + 42.861 = $302 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 144.921 + 233.623 + 72.243 + 152.741 = $604 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $138 Mil.
Revenue was 430.185 + 419.474 + 490.616 + 494.916 = $1,835 Mil.
Gross Profit was 299.25 + 281.887 + 336.788 + 355.962 = $1,274 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $302 Mil.
Total Assets was $24,790 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $19,060 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $686 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $227 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $692 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $9,119 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(132.464 / 1726.668)||/||(137.879 / 1835.191)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(322.676 / 1835.191)||/||(290.385 / 1726.668)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (444.343 + 16770.837) / 24072.103)||/||(1 - (302.06 + 19059.538) / 24789.543)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(685.646 / (685.646 + 19059.538))||/||(638.981 / (638.981 + 16770.837))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(244.848 / 1726.668)||/||(226.748 / 1835.191)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((8822.952 + 556.965) / 24072.103)||/||((9119.317 + 692.241) / 24789.543)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(287.088 - 301.712||-||603.528)||/||24072.103|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Prologis Inc has a M-score of -2.54 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Prologis Inc Annual Data
Prologis Inc Quarterly Data