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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Prologis Inc was 5.08. The lowest was -3.55. And the median was -2.56.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Prologis Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1||+||0.528 * 0.97||+||0.404 * 0.9139||+||0.892 * 1.153||+||0.115 * 0.9146|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.8867||+||4.679 * -0.0397||-||0.327 * 0.939|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.
|This Year (Dec16) TTM:||Last Year (Dec15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $0 Mil.|
Revenue was 620.115 + 704.565 + 602.155 + 606.3 = $2,533 Mil.
Gross Profit was 448.342 + 519.427 + 433.564 + 434.426 = $1,836 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $807 Mil.
Total Assets was $30,250 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $23,464 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $931 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $222 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $556 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $10,608 Mil.
Net Income was 442.197 + 280.926 + 277.079 + 209.73 = $1,210 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 405.116 + 162.915 + 233.513 + 192.553 = $994 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 419.994 + 418.92 + 311.821 + 266.27 = $1,417 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $0 Mil.
Revenue was 643.201 + 580.622 + 510.404 + 462.847 = $2,197 Mil.
Gross Profit was 460.457 + 413.806 + 359.637 + 310.57 = $1,544 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $264 Mil.
Total Assets was $31,395 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $24,341 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $880 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $217 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $713 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $11,627 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(0 / 2533.135)||/||(0 / 2197.074)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1544.47 / 2197.074)||/||(1835.759 / 2533.135)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (807.316 + 23463.788) / 30249.932)||/||(1 - (264.08 + 24341.262) / 31394.767)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(880.373 / (880.373 + 24341.262))||/||(930.985 / (930.985 + 23463.788))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(222.067 / 2533.135)||/||(217.227 / 2197.074)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((10608.294 + 556.179) / 30249.932)||/||((11626.831 + 712.725) / 31394.767)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(1209.932 - 994.097||-||1417.005)||/||30249.932|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Prologis Inc has a M-score of -2.55 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Prologis Inc Annual Data
Prologis Inc Quarterly Data