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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
PPG Industries Inc has a M-score of -2.48 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of PPG Industries Inc was -2.08. The lowest was -3.12. And the median was -2.57.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of PPG Industries Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.8751||+||0.528 * 0.9537||+||0.404 * 0.8912||+||0.892 * 1.1289||+||0.115 * 0.9364|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0355||+||4.679 * 0.0173||-||0.327 * 0.9858|
|This Year (Jun14) TTM:||Last Year (Jun13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $3,184 Mil.|
Revenue was 4082 + 3636 + 3702 + 3980 = $15,400 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1776 + 1545 + 1594 + 1742 = $6,657 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $9,035 Mil.
Total Assets was $17,300 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,777 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $489 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $3,806 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4,962 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,958 Mil.
Net Income was 386 + 1262 + 254 + 226 = $2,128 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 9 + 1 + 310 + -190 = $130 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 238 + 163 + 509 + 788 = $1,698 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $3,223 Mil.
Revenue was 3883 + 3108 + 3243 + 3408 = $13,642 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1620 + 1246 + 1333 + 1425 = $5,624 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $7,710 Mil.
Total Assets was $16,066 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,637 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $430 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $3,256 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4,106 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,355 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(3184 / 15400)||/||(3223 / 13642)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1545 / 13642)||/||(1776 / 15400)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (9035 + 2777) / 17300)||/||(1 - (7710 + 2637) / 16066)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(430 / (430 + 2637))||/||(489 / (489 + 2777))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(3806 / 15400)||/||(3256 / 13642)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((2958 + 4962) / 17300)||/||((3355 + 4106) / 16066)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(2128 - 130||-||1698)||/||17300|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
PPG Industries Inc has a M-score of -2.48 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
PPG Industries Inc Annual Data
PPG Industries Inc Quarterly Data