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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of PPL Corp was -1.97. The lowest was -2.44. And the median was -2.21.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of PPL Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.094||+||0.528 * 0.9281||+||0.404 * 0.9572||+||0.892 * 0.9804||+||0.115 * 0.9876|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0||+||4.679 * -0.0317||-||0.327 * 0.9762|
|This Year (Dec14) TTM:||Last Year (Dec13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,094 Mil.|
Revenue was 4023 + 3449 + 2874 + 1223 = $11,569 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2102 + 1952 + 1864 + 1821 = $7,739 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $6,159 Mil.
Total Assets was $48,864 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $34,597 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,465 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $7,443 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $18,856 Mil.
Net Income was 695 + 497 + 229 + 316 = $1,737 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 103 + -112 + -85 + -23 = $-117 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 775 + 1045 + 652 + 931 = $3,403 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,020 Mil.
Revenue was 2819 + 3074 + 3450 + 2457 = $11,800 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1875 + 1874 + 1828 + 1749 = $7,326 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $5,153 Mil.
Total Assets was $46,259 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $33,087 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,383 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $151 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4,912 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $20,592 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1094 / 11569)||/||(1020 / 11800)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1952 / 11800)||/||(2102 / 11569)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (6159 + 34597) / 48864)||/||(1 - (5153 + 33087) / 46259)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(1383 / (1383 + 33087))||/||(1465 / (1465 + 34597))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(0 / 11569)||/||(151 / 11800)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((18856 + 7443) / 48864)||/||((20592 + 4912) / 46259)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(1737 - -117||-||3403)||/||48864|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
PPL Corp has a M-score of -2.44 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
PPL Corp Annual Data
PPL Corp Quarterly Data