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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Parexel International Corp has a M-score of -2.68 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Parexel International Corp was -0.65. The lowest was -3.47. And the median was -2.37.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Parexel International Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9906||+||0.528 * 0.8989||+||0.404 * 0.9688||+||0.892 * 1.1459||+||0.115 * 0.9192|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.061||+||4.679 * -0.0546||-||0.327 * 0.9442|
|This Year (Mar14) TTM:||Last Year (Mar13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $752 Mil.|
Revenue was 577.918 + 574.236 + 529.064 + 526.858 = $2,208 Mil.
Gross Profit was 169.226 + 162.638 + 146.051 + 148.238 = $626 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,168 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,873 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $228 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $81 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $366 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $771 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $287 Mil.
Net Income was 34.739 + 28.329 + 25.954 + 30.041 = $119 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.292 + -1.201 + -0.201 + 2.212 = $1 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 76.362 + 149.474 + -37.137 + 32.078 = $221 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $662 Mil.
Revenue was 523.451 + 483.137 + 462.52 + 457.745 = $1,927 Mil.
Gross Profit was 142.576 + 120.743 + 115.349 + 112.5 = $491 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,037 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,694 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $212 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $67 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $301 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $626 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $386 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(751.869 / 2208.076)||/||(662.354 / 1926.853)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(162.638 / 1926.853)||/||(169.226 / 2208.076)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1167.681 + 228.207) / 1873.285)||/||(1 - (1036.529 + 211.82) / 1693.955)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(67.479 / (67.479 + 211.82))||/||(81.369 / (81.369 + 228.207))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(365.873 / 2208.076)||/||(300.931 / 1926.853)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((286.748 + 770.596) / 1873.285)||/||((386.394 + 626.237) / 1693.955)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(119.063 - 0.518||-||220.777)||/||1873.285|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Parexel International Corp has a M-score of -2.68 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Parexel International Corp Annual Data
Parexel International Corp Quarterly Data