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PS Business Parks Inc (NYSE:PSB)
Beneish M-Score
2.26 (As of Today)

Warning Sign:

Beneish M-Score 2.26 higher than -2.22, which implies that it might have manipulated its financial results.

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

PS Business Parks Inc has a M-score of 2.26 signals that the company is a manipulator.

PSB' s 10-Year Beneish M-Score Range
Min: -4.24   Max: 2.26
Current: 2.26

-4.24
2.26

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of PS Business Parks Inc was 2.26. The lowest was -4.24. And the median was -2.78.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of PS Business Parks Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 5.3793+0.528 * 0.9923+0.404 * 2.9009+0.892 * 1.0469+0.115 * 1.0097
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 0.5702+4.679 * -0.0534-0.327 * 0.7523
=2.26

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Mar14) TTM:Last Year (Mar13) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $35.3 Mil.
Revenue was 95.487 + 93.586 + 89.934 + 88.087 = $367.1 Mil.
Gross Profit was 62.043 + 66.76 + 60.033 + 59.367 = $248.2 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $81.0 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,234.2 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,120.8 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $110.4 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $5.4 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $71.0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $250.0 Mil.
Net Income was 25.098 + 32.755 + 24.151 + 23.863 = $105.9 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0.0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 55.328 + 56.489 + 60.196 + 53.083 = $225.1 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $6.3 Mil.
Revenue was 88.278 + 89.384 + 87.179 + 85.791 = $350.6 Mil.
Gross Profit was 58.894 + 60.402 + 57.885 + 58.074 = $235.3 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $40.3 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,126.7 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,075.8 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $109.2 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $9.0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $66.2 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $340.0 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(35.272 / 367.094) / (6.263 / 350.632)
=0.09608438 / 0.01786203
=5.3793

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(66.76 / 350.632) / (62.043 / 367.094)
=0.67094561 / 0.67612927
=0.9923

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (81.041 + 2120.756) / 2234.205) / (1 - (40.254 + 2075.803) / 2126.691)
=0.01450538 / 0.00500026
=2.9009

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=367.094 / 350.632
=1.0469

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(109.156 / (109.156 + 2075.803)) / (110.397 / (110.397 + 2120.756))
=0.04995792 / 0.0494798
=1.0097

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(5.4 / 367.094) / (9.045 / 350.632)
=0.01471013 / 0.02579628
=0.5702

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((250 + 71.014) / 2234.205) / ((340 + 66.154) / 2126.691)
=0.14368153 / 0.19097932
=0.7523

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(105.867 - 0 - 225.096) / 2234.205
=-0.0534

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

PS Business Parks Inc has a M-score of 2.26 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

PS Business Parks Inc Annual Data

Dec04Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13
DSRI 110.91850.94421.04721.04220.11691.27651.065
GMI 1.04211.01311.00470.9981.01011.00941.01880.99040.9859
AQI 0.79566.32250.05110.42670.20651.79812.36430.38480.8045
SGI 1.15861.10291.1181.03810.96391.01951.07651.16451.0365
DEPI 0.94560.059115.64320.95121.11751.2631.22250.78351.0368
SGAI 01.09341.0050.98540.79451.52640.86970.84760.5746
LVGI 0.13692.58980.87411.79720.88081.92642.97950.68670.5792
TATA -0.0659-0.0694-0.0761-0.0822-0.0655-0.0566-0.0405-0.0558-0.0532
M-score -2.26-1.20-1.46-3.38-3.00-2.72-3.45-2.49-2.51

PS Business Parks Inc Quarterly Data

Dec11Mar12Jun12Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14
DSRI 0.11710.83111.50361.18351.27671.34470.80980.96941.0655.3793
GMI 1.01861.00850.99771.00330.99020.99721.00110.99520.98590.9923
AQI 2.36430.86150.90610.81480.38480.28680.29650.37370.80452.9009
SGI 1.07481.08991.12051.13091.16431.13351.09611.06961.03651.0469
DEPI 1.22251.17671.12031.08750.78350.84270.90190.94381.03681.0097
SGAI 0.87111.05471.18721.35610.84770.81940.78960.77910.57460.5702
LVGI 2.97952.4051.93821.55860.68670.57640.68240.80550.57920.7523
TATA -0.0405-0.0487-0.0495-0.0487-0.0558-0.0541-0.0556-0.0575-0.0532-0.0534
M-score -3.45-3.28-2.51-2.73-2.49-2.44-2.98-2.88-2.512.26
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