Switch to:
Penn West Petroleum Ltd (NYSE:PWE)
Beneish M-Score
-3.39 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

Penn West Petroleum Ltd has a M-score of -3.52 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

PWE' s 10-Year Beneish M-Score Range
Min: -3.62   Max: -1.22
Current: -3.39

-3.62
-1.22

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Penn West Petroleum Ltd was -1.22. The lowest was -3.62. And the median was -2.91.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Penn West Petroleum Ltd for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 0.9856+0.528 * 1.1115+0.404 * 0.5602+0.892 * 0.6413+0.115 * 0.9839
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1.1212+4.679 * -0.1055-0.327 * 1.2193
=-3.52

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Jun15) TTM:Last Year (Jun14) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $159 Mil.
Revenue was 305.701577032 + 282.136630211 + 446.583420049 + 552.17509763 = $1,587 Mil.
Gross Profit was 140.719773554 + 115.707719131 + 195.976413458 + 296.067568795 = $748 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $338 Mil.
Total Assets was $7,582 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $6,479 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,199 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $92 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $607 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,524 Mil.
Net Income was -22.6445612616 + -196.544618799 + -1536.59382588 + -13.6227408955 = $-1,769 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -22.6445612616 + -133.935647488 + -1201.00589664 + -50.8582326764 = $-1,408 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -54.1852001617 + 123.632905373 + 104.058272633 + 265.189356098 = $439 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $252 Mil.
Revenue was 636.195752539 + 567.056705671 + 563.909774436 + 706.963249516 = $2,474 Mil.
Gross Profit was 391.505078486 + 295.229522952 + 257.518796992 + 352.998065764 = $1,297 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $390 Mil.
Total Assets was $10,959 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $8,596 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,560 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $128 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $699 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,827 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(159.320663162 / 1586.59672492) / (252.077562327 / 2474.12548216)
=0.10041661 / 0.10188552
=0.9856

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(115.707719131 / 2474.12548216) / (140.719773554 / 1586.59672492)
=0.52432727 / 0.47174651
=1.1115

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (338.050950263 + 6478.77072382) / 7581.88435099) / (1 - (389.658356417 + 8595.56786704) / 10959.3721145)
=0.10090667 / 0.18013312
=0.5602

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=1586.59672492 / 2474.12548216
=0.6413

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(1560.03858117 / (1560.03858117 + 8595.56786704)) / (1198.61397735 / (1198.61397735 + 6478.77072382))
=0.15361353 / 0.15612269
=0.9839

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(91.6940327888 / 1586.59672492) / (127.532039802 / 2474.12548216)
=0.0577929 / 0.05154631
=1.1212

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((1524.46421351 + 606.550748079) / 7581.88435099) / ((1827.33148661 + 698.984302862) / 10959.3721145)
=0.28106667 / 0.23051647
=1.2193

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(-1769.40574683 - -1408.44433806 - 438.695333943) / 7581.88435099
=-0.1055

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Penn West Petroleum Ltd has a M-score of -3.52 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Penn West Petroleum Ltd Annual Data

Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14
DSRI 0.88090.69161.79430.90161.06560.89250.7990.7767
GMI 1.01940.93651.47820.86860.94981.14020.92840.9308
AQI 0.95641.69561.11041.38640.84060.9291.07680.6166
SGI 1.3471.63360.6271.20671.16310.8680.84140.822
DEPI 0.78870.95070.94121.03811.3050.76040.75741.0701
SGAI 1.17681.19241.98750.93361.12690.93460.93611.0032
LVGI 1.3851.08970.92490.8891.08940.84571.02231.1252
TATA -0.1074-0.0776-0.1113-0.0741-0.0469-0.0722-0.1374-0.1156
M-score -2.97-2.38-2.46-2.59-2.60-2.95-3.48-3.61

Penn West Petroleum Ltd Quarterly Data

Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15Jun15
DSRI 1.08581.36040.92320.71110.70410.72550.68170.78470.76350.9856
GMI 1.01561.12360.98250.82021.06960.95910.98131.09560.97571.1115
AQI 0.94091.04811.07421.07681.11881.1191.13520.61660.61360.5602
SGI 0.80350.71170.80450.94540.89670.97340.91050.81370.73920.6413
DEPI 0.79590.80380.78380.74780.72960.75350.77651.05471.01720.9839
SGAI 1.94552.06161.77721.67110.33940.31360.30220.4421.10141.1212
LVGI 0.90120.9310.84991.02230.92820.85250.91411.12521.21881.2193
TATA -0.0413-0.0586-0.0544-0.0985-0.1421-0.1332-0.1308-0.1123-0.1231-0.1055
M-score -2.94-2.78-3.07-3.47-3.32-3.22-3.30-3.41-3.76-3.52
Get WordPress Plugins for easy affiliate links on Stock Tickers and Guru Names | Earn affiliate commissions by embedding GuruFocus Charts
GuruFocus Affiliate Program: Earn up to $400 per referral. ( Learn More)

GuruFocus Premium Plus Membership

FEEDBACK