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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Qualcomm, Inc. has a M-score of -2.91 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Qualcomm, Inc. was 1.06. The lowest was -4.24. And the median was -2.52.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Qualcomm, Inc. for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.6471||+||0.528 * 1.0561||+||0.404 * 0.9015||+||0.892 * 1.2451||+||0.115 * 0.8421|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.8718||+||4.679 * -0.0666||-||0.327 * 1.0285|
|This Year (Dec13) TTM:||Last Year (Dec12) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,327 Mil.|
Revenue was 6622 + 6481 + 6243 + 6124 = $25,470 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3916 + 3767 + 3746 + 3752 = $15,181 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $20,585 Mil.
Total Assets was $46,282 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,562 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,048 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,554 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $5,313 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0 Mil.
Net Income was 1875 + 1501 + 1580 + 1866 = $6,822 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 111 + 67 + 58 + 85 = $321 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 2781 + 2510 + 2077 + 2216 = $9,584 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,647 Mil.
Revenue was 6018 + 4870 + 4626 + 4943 = $20,457 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3781 + 3029 + 2907 + 3160 = $12,877 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $17,103 Mil.
Total Assets was $44,841 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,874 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $930 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,353 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $5,005 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1327 / 25470)||/||(1647 / 20457)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(3767 / 20457)||/||(3916 / 25470)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (20585 + 2562) / 46282)||/||(1 - (17103 + 2874) / 44841)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(930 / (930 + 2874))||/||(1048 / (1048 + 2562))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(2554 / 25470)||/||(2353 / 20457)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 5313) / 46282)||/||((0 + 5005) / 44841)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(6822 - 321||-||9584)||/||46282|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Qualcomm, Inc. has a M-score of -2.91 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Qualcomm, Inc. Annual Data
Qualcomm, Inc. Quarterly Data