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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Ryder System Inc was 6.06. The lowest was -4.00. And the median was -3.01.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Ryder System Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0506||+||0.528 * 0.9434||+||0.404 * 0.9421||+||0.892 * 1.0059||+||0.115 * 1.0113|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0147||+||4.679 * -0.1198||-||0.327 * 1.0135|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $823 Mil.|
Revenue was 1629.672 + 1672.743 + 1669.066 + 1662.931 = $6,634 Mil.
Gross Profit was 346.567 + 386.774 + 382.599 + 385.959 = $1,502 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,095 Mil.
Total Assets was $11,055 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $8,993 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,235 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $849 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,594 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $4,987 Mil.
Net Income was 55.794 + 76.201 + 90.619 + 85.159 = $308 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 21.394 + 16.593 + 30.666 + 34.265 = $103 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 365.009 + 370.452 + 412.638 + 380.82 = $1,529 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $778 Mil.
Revenue was 1567.153 + 1656.316 + 1687.15 + 1684.571 = $6,595 Mil.
Gross Profit was 329.36 + 369.695 + 361.806 + 347.591 = $1,408 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,078 Mil.
Total Assets was $9,907 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $7,908 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,100 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $832 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,127 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $4,693 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(822.556 / 6634.412)||/||(778.28 / 6595.19)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(386.774 / 6595.19)||/||(346.567 / 6634.412)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1094.546 + 8992.537) / 11054.53)||/||(1 - (1078.019 + 7908.463) / 9906.791)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(1100.322 / (1100.322 + 7908.463))||/||(1235.2 / (1235.2 + 8992.537))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(849.105 / 6634.412)||/||(831.878 / 6595.19)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((4987.217 + 1593.54) / 11054.53)||/||((4692.503 + 1126.537) / 9906.791)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(307.773 - 102.918||-||1528.919)||/||11054.53|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Ryder System Inc has a M-score of -3.05 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Ryder System Inc Annual Data
Ryder System Inc Quarterly Data