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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Resource America Inc was 3.84. The lowest was -4.37. And the median was -2.13.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Resource America Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.7213||+||0.528 * 0.6211||+||0.404 * 0.8376||+||0.892 * 1.2859||+||0.115 * 0.8576|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.2024||+||4.679 * -0.0676||-||0.327 * 0.3534|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $25.5 Mil.|
Revenue was 25.968 + -29.007 + 40.677 + 45.996 = $83.6 Mil.
Gross Profit was 10.878 + -46.185 + 25.651 + 30.302 = $20.6 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $44.9 Mil.
Total Assets was $204.6 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $5.1 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $2.1 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $17.4 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $25.3 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $20.6 Mil.
Net Income was 3.037 + 8.605 + -1.1 + -1.652 = $8.9 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.693 + -31.279 + 5.012 + 6.426 = $-19.1 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 2.714 + 10.331 + 34.938 + -6.125 = $41.9 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $27.5 Mil.
Revenue was 23.839 + -42.64 + 41.504 + 42.335 = $65.0 Mil.
Gross Profit was 8.698 + -58.237 + 29.183 + 30.328 = $10.0 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $297.3 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,102.3 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $5.7 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1.9 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $11.3 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $23.8 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,946.1 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(25.509 / 83.634)||/||(27.501 / 65.038)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(-46.185 / 65.038)||/||(10.878 / 83.634)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (44.901 + 5.061) / 204.586)||/||(1 - (297.337 + 5.739) / 3102.307)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(1.918 / (1.918 + 5.739))||/||(2.088 / (2.088 + 5.061))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(17.411 / 83.634)||/||(11.261 / 65.038)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((20.597 + 25.313) / 204.586)||/||((1946.106 + 23.796) / 3102.307)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(8.89 - -19.148||-||41.858)||/||204.586|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Resource America Inc has a M-score of -2.90 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Resource America Inc Annual Data
Resource America Inc Quarterly Data