Switch to:
Resolute Forest Products Inc (NYSE:RFP)
Beneish M-Score
-3.07 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

Resolute Forest Products Inc has a M-score of -3.07 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

RFP' s Beneish M-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: -4   Max: -1.23
Current: -3.07

-4
-1.23

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Resolute Forest Products Inc was -1.23. The lowest was -4.00. And the median was -2.68.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Resolute Forest Products Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 0.9809+0.528 * 1.064+0.404 * 1.0325+0.892 * 0.856+0.115 * 0.942
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1.0762+4.679 * -0.0945-0.327 * 1.0793
=-3.07

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Dec15) TTM:Last Year (Dec14) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $377 Mil.
Revenue was 894 + 905 + 926 + 920 = $3,645 Mil.
Gross Profit was 165 + 218 + 234 + 202 = $819 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,111 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,220 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,810 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $237 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $620 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $437 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $590 Mil.
Net Income was -214 + -6 + -4 + -33 = $-257 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -1 + -1 + 1 + 5 = $4 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 48 + 0 + 61 + 29 = $138 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $449 Mil.
Revenue was 1055 + 1096 + 1091 + 1016 = $4,258 Mil.
Gross Profit was 264 + 280 + 279 + 195 = $1,018 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,464 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,914 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,985 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $243 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $673 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $519 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $589 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(377 / 3645) / (449 / 4258)
=0.10342936 / 0.10544857
=0.9809

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(218 / 4258) / (165 / 3645)
=0.23907938 / 0.22469136
=1.064

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (1111 + 1810) / 4220) / (1 - (1464 + 1985) / 4914)
=0.30781991 / 0.2981278
=1.0325

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=3645 / 4258
=0.856

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(243 / (243 + 1985)) / (237 / (237 + 1810))
=0.10906643 / 0.11577919
=0.942

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(620 / 3645) / (673 / 4258)
=0.17009602 / 0.15805543
=1.0762

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((590 + 437) / 4220) / ((589 + 519) / 4914)
=0.24336493 / 0.22547823
=1.0793

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(-257 - 4 - 138) / 4220
=-0.0945

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Resolute Forest Products Inc has a M-score of -3.07 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Resolute Forest Products Inc Annual Data

Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14Dec15
DSRI 1.30921.82030.61951.2241.21990.68011.04530.93930.87760.9809
GMI 1.8450.86140.71941.02551.08810.87831.0920.98680.95171.064
AQI 0.50251.45180.42291.48341.97341.11211.11030.79721.04661.0325
SGI 0.90640.93081.74690.64481.0871.00210.94680.99070.95450.856
DEPI 1.50121.7730.46331.03680.85061.94630.92720.90830.87990.942
SGAI 0.19236.2950.93320.97550.95080.99370.99331.0461.02631.0762
LVGI 0.9951.1471.37640.30610.87730.75130.95181.22771.04311.0793
TATA -0.0297-0.0235-0.2362-0.1250.1066-0.0168-0.045-0.1454-0.0773-0.0945
M-score -1.97-2.66-3.82-2.73-1.23-2.68-2.59-3.41-3.03-3.07

Resolute Forest Products Inc Quarterly Data

Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15Jun15Sep15Dec15
DSRI 1.18930.93930.90630.90430.76480.87760.86350.87640.90980.9809
GMI 1.05750.98870.99410.93610.93680.95170.91480.95110.9811.064
AQI 0.88880.79720.79380.81160.9581.04660.96120.95160.99631.0325
SGI 0.98160.99070.97350.98320.98060.95450.94530.91110.87430.856
DEPI 0.90310.90830.91880.91050.89640.87990.90310.93510.96420.942
SGAI 1.0341.0461.02571.01711.02431.02631.05011.06031.05961.0762
LVGI 1.06781.22771.23591.20421.11821.04311.02451.00770.99841.0793
TATA -0.1487-0.1454-0.1476-0.1553-0.0534-0.0773-0.095-0.0921-0.0721-0.0945
M-score -3.07-3.41-3.46-3.50-3.07-3.03-3.19-3.17-3.04-3.07
Get WordPress Plugins for easy affiliate links on Stock Tickers and Guru Names | Earn affiliate commissions by embedding GuruFocus Charts
GuruFocus Affiliate Program: Earn up to $400 per referral. ( Learn More)

GuruFocus Premium Plus Membership

FEEDBACK