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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Resolute Forest Products Inc was 0.45. The lowest was -4.41. And the median was -2.73.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Resolute Forest Products Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.8635||+||0.528 * 0.9148||+||0.404 * 0.9612||+||0.892 * 0.9453||+||0.115 * 0.9031|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0501||+||4.679 * -0.095||-||0.327 * 1.0245|
|This Year (Mar15) TTM:||Last Year (Mar14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $422 Mil.|
Revenue was 920 + 1055 + 1096 + 1091 = $4,162 Mil.
Gross Profit was 202 + 264 + 280 + 279 = $1,025 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,504 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,746 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,956 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $238 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $671 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $488 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $596 Mil.
Net Income was -33 + -109 + -116 + -2 = $-260 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 5 + -25 + -65 + 20 = $-65 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 29 + 106 + 58 + 63 = $256 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $517 Mil.
Revenue was 1016 + 1150 + 1130 + 1107 = $4,403 Mil.
Gross Profit was 195 + 276 + 273 + 248 = $992 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,519 Mil.
Total Assets was $5,257 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,256 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $245 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $676 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $575 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $597 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(422 / 4162)||/||(517 / 4403)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(264 / 4403)||/||(202 / 4162)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1504 + 1956) / 4746)||/||(1 - (1519 + 2256) / 5257)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(245 / (245 + 2256))||/||(238 / (238 + 1956))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(671 / 4162)||/||(676 / 4403)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((596 + 488) / 4746)||/||((597 + 575) / 5257)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-260 - -65||-||256)||/||4746|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Resolute Forest Products Inc has a M-score of -3.19 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Resolute Forest Products Inc Annual Data
Resolute Forest Products Inc Quarterly Data