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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Regis Corp was -1.01. The lowest was -4.07. And the median was -2.78.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Regis Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9788||+||0.528 * 1.0165||+||0.404 * 1.0595||+||0.892 * 0.972||+||0.115 * 0.9937|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9787||+||4.679 * -0.0605||-||0.327 * 0.9662|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.
|This Year (Sep16) TTM:||Last Year (Sep15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $23 Mil.|
Revenue was 431.042 + 447.707 + 442.565 + 450.467 = $1,772 Mil.
Gross Profit was 179.8 + 188.084 + 182.519 + 183.411 = $734 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $356 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,026 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $175 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $56 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $647 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $182 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $120 Mil.
Net Income was 3.281 + 5.562 + -2.084 + -13.986 = $-7 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 12.33 + 16.14 + 26.994 + -0.611 = $55 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $24 Mil.
Revenue was 450.13 + 462.889 + 453.96 + 455.887 = $1,823 Mil.
Gross Profit was 189.326 + 198.274 + 192.013 + 187.838 = $767 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $404 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,120 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $206 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $65 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $680 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $221 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $120 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(23.068 / 1771.781)||/||(24.247 / 1822.866)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(767.451 / 1822.866)||/||(733.814 / 1771.781)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (356.099 + 174.769) / 1025.913)||/||(1 - (403.856 + 206.261) / 1120.373)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(65.342 / (65.342 + 206.261))||/||(55.827 / (55.827 + 174.769))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(647.196 / 1771.781)||/||(680.36 / 1822.866)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((119.855 + 181.788) / 1025.913)||/||((120 + 220.928) / 1120.373)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-7.227 - 0||-||54.853)||/||1025.913|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Regis Corp has a M-score of -2.76 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Regis Corp Annual Data
Regis Corp Quarterly Data