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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Red Hat Inc was -1.76. The lowest was -4.60. And the median was -2.84.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Red Hat Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9253||+||0.528 * 1.0007||+||0.404 * 0.972||+||0.892 * 1.1577||+||0.115 * 0.9779|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0021||+||4.679 * -0.1282||-||0.327 * 1.4133|
|This Year (May15) TTM:||Last Year (May14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $285 Mil.|
Revenue was 481.001 + 463.941 + 455.895 + 445.899 = $1,847 Mil.
Gross Profit was 409.604 + 393.724 + 384.53 + 378.725 = $1,567 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,701 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,760 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $168 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $76 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $921 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,245 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $720 Mil.
Net Income was 48.086 + 47.7 + 47.933 + 46.823 = $191 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.203 + 4.785 + 1.559 + -0.289 = $6 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 208.758 + 217.384 + 132.988 + 107.737 = $667 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $266 Mil.
Revenue was 423.754 + 400.397 + 396.536 + 374.423 = $1,595 Mil.
Gross Profit was 359.311 + 339.861 + 336.109 + 318.843 = $1,354 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,309 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,070 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $173 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $75 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $794 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,135 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(284.582 / 1846.736)||/||(265.663 / 1595.11)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(393.724 / 1595.11)||/||(409.604 / 1846.736)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1700.914 + 168.391) / 3760.28)||/||(1 - (1308.901 + 172.792) / 3070.01)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(75.397 / (75.397 + 172.792))||/||(75.886 / (75.886 + 168.391))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(921.274 / 1846.736)||/||(794.094 / 1595.11)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((720.001 + 1244.986) / 3760.28)||/||((0 + 1135.114) / 3070.01)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(190.542 - 5.852||-||666.867)||/||3760.28|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Red Hat Inc has a M-score of -3.16 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Red Hat Inc Annual Data
Red Hat Inc Quarterly Data