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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Rockwell Automation Inc was -1.31. The lowest was -2.96. And the median was -2.59.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Rockwell Automation Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.112||+||0.528 * 1.0178||+||0.404 * 1.1084||+||0.892 * 0.9321||+||0.115 * 0.922|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0451||+||4.679 * -0.0297||-||0.327 * 1.1135|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.
|This Year (Sep16) TTM:||Last Year (Sep15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,079 Mil.|
Revenue was 1538.6 + 1474 + 1440.3 + 1426.6 = $5,880 Mil.
Gross Profit was 651.9 + 616.8 + 594.1 + 612.7 = $2,476 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,185 Mil.
Total Assets was $7,101 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $578 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $172 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,467 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,976 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,516 Mil.
Net Income was 185.2 + 191 + 168 + 185.5 = $730 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -7.4 + 0.3 + -0.8 + 1.5 = $-6 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 272 + 276 + 214.5 + 184.8 = $947 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,041 Mil.
Revenue was 1607.5 + 1575.2 + 1550.8 + 1574.4 = $6,308 Mil.
Gross Profit was 664.2 + 678.2 + 673.2 + 687.5 = $2,703 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,897 Mil.
Total Assets was $6,405 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $606 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $163 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,506 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,328 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,501 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1079 / 5879.5)||/||(1041 / 6307.9)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(2703.1 / 6307.9)||/||(2475.5 / 5879.5)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (4185 + 578.3) / 7101.2)||/||(1 - (3896.8 + 605.6) / 6404.7)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(162.5 / (162.5 + 605.6))||/||(172.2 / (172.2 + 578.3))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1467.4 / 5879.5)||/||(1506.4 / 6307.9)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1516.3 + 1975.9) / 7101.2)||/||((1500.9 + 1327.7) / 6404.7)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(729.7 - -6.4||-||947.3)||/||7101.2|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Rockwell Automation Inc has a M-score of -2.58 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Rockwell Automation Inc Annual Data
Rockwell Automation Inc Quarterly Data