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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Roberts Realty Investors Inc has a M-score of signals that the company is a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Roberts Realty Investors Inc was 305.06. The lowest was -10000000.00. And the median was -3.13.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Roberts Realty Investors Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 *||+||0.528 *||+||0.404 *||+||0.892 *||+||0.115 *|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 *||+||4.679 *||-||0.327 *|
|This Year (Jun14) TTM:||Last Year (Jun13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $0.00 Mil.|
Revenue was 0 + 0.006 + -0.288 + 0.115 = $-0.17 Mil.
Gross Profit was -0.029 + -0.017 + -0.328 + -0.001 = $-0.38 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2.24 Mil.
Total Assets was $26.71 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $12.78 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $0.25 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1.94 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0.46 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $5.57 Mil.
Net Income was -0.645 + -0.62 + 0.54 + -0.869 = $-1.59 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.052 + -0.052 + -0.042 + -0.06 = $-0.21 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -0.745 + -0.773 + -0.912 + -0.519 = $-2.95 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $0.00 Mil.
Revenue was 0.195 + 0.212 + 0.278 + 0.444 = $1.13 Mil.
Gross Profit was 0.08 + 0.088 + 0.149 + 0.295 = $0.61 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $0.93 Mil.
Total Assets was $35.37 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $15.06 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $0.50 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1.63 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0.71 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $12.98 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(0 / -0.167)||/||(0 / 1.129)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(-0.017 / 1.129)||/||(-0.029 / -0.167)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (2.24 + 12.776) / 26.711)||/||(1 - (0.93 + 15.055) / 35.365)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(0.501 / (0.501 + 15.055))||/||(0.246 / (0.246 + 12.776))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1.944 / -0.167)||/||(1.626 / 1.129)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((5.565 + 0.455) / 26.711)||/||((12.978 + 0.712) / 35.365)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-1.594 - -0.206||-||-2.949)||/||26.711|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Roberts Realty Investors Inc has a M-score of signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Roberts Realty Investors Inc Annual Data
Roberts Realty Investors Inc Quarterly Data