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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Repros Therapeutics Inc was 152.70. The lowest was -78.55. And the median was -3.03.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Repros Therapeutics Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1||+||0.528 * 1||+||0.404 * 0||+||0.892 * 0.7778||+||0.115 * -0.0492|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.3991||+||4.679 * -0.0578||-||0.327 * 0.9322|
|This Year (Mar15) TTM:||Last Year (Mar14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $0.00 Mil.|
Revenue was 0.001 + 0.002 + 0.002 + 0.002 = $0.01 Mil.
Gross Profit was 0.001 + 0.002 + 0.002 + 0.002 = $0.01 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $38.44 Mil.
Total Assets was $38.47 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $0.02 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $0.04 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $5.42 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1.95 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.00 Mil.
Net Income was -8.525 + -7.901 + -7.382 + -8.704 = $-32.51 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.001 + -0.002 + -0.002 + -0.002 = $-0.01 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -8.847 + -7.292 + -7.269 + -6.874 = $-30.28 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $0.00 Mil.
Revenue was 0.002 + 0.003 + 0.003 + 0.001 = $0.01 Mil.
Gross Profit was 0.002 + 0.003 + 0.003 + 0.001 = $0.01 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $68.60 Mil.
Total Assets was $71.81 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $0.06 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $-0.00 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $4.98 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3.91 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.00 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(0 / 0.007)||/||(0 / 0.009)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(0.002 / 0.009)||/||(0.001 / 0.007)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (38.444 + 0.022) / 38.466)||/||(1 - (68.595 + 0.064) / 71.809)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(-0.002 / (-0.002 + 0.064))||/||(0.042 / (0.042 + 0.022))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(5.416 / 0.007)||/||(4.977 / 0.009)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 1.952) / 38.466)||/||((0 + 3.909) / 71.809)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-32.512 - -0.007||-||-30.282)||/||38.466|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Repros Therapeutics Inc has a M-score of -3.52 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Repros Therapeutics Inc Annual Data
Repros Therapeutics Inc Quarterly Data