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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company has a M-score of -2.82 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company was -1.94. The lowest was -3.41. And the median was -2.98.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9512||+||0.528 * 1.0263||+||0.404 * 0.8446||+||0.892 * 1.0253||+||0.115 * 0.9827|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0451||+||4.679 * -0.0517||-||0.327 * 1.066|
|This Year (Dec13) TTM:||Last Year (Dec12) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,832 Mil.|
Revenue was 2755.3 + 2614.9 + 2571.6 + 2538.5 = $10,480 Mil.
Gross Profit was 603.6 + 570.4 + 598.2 + 558.3 = $2,331 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,562 Mil.
Total Assets was $7,238 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,430 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $436 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,182 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,229 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,587 Mil.
Net Income was 104 + 14.7 + 65.4 + 27.1 = $211 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -18.2 + -46 + -6 + -39.1 = $-109 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 387.7 + 249.2 + 153.7 + -95.8 = $695 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,879 Mil.
Revenue was 2659.6 + 2508.8 + 2528.6 + 2524.9 = $10,222 Mil.
Gross Profit was 585.3 + 573 + 594.7 + 579.9 = $2,333 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,977 Mil.
Total Assets was $7,263 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,617 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $482 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,103 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,054 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,420 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1832.3 / 10480.3)||/||(1878.8 / 10221.9)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(570.4 / 10221.9)||/||(603.6 / 10480.3)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (3561.6 + 1430.1) / 7238.2)||/||(1 - (2977.4 + 1616.6) / 7262.7)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(481.6 / (481.6 + 1616.6))||/||(435.8 / (435.8 + 1430.1))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1181.5 / 10480.3)||/||(1102.6 / 10221.9)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((3587 + 2228.7) / 7238.2)||/||((3420.2 + 2053.9) / 7262.7)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(211.2 - -109.3||-||694.8)||/||7238.2|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company has a M-score of -2.82 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company Annual Data
R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company Quarterly Data