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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 10 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Sandstorm Gold Ltd was 181.76. The lowest was -7.81. And the median was -2.00.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Sandstorm Gold Ltd for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.4515||+||0.528 * 0.2049||+||0.404 * 1.3182||+||0.892 * 1.1843||+||0.115 * 1.2101|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.4125||+||4.679 * -0.0527||-||0.327 * 0.0438|
|This Year (Dec16) TTM:||Last Year (Dec15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $6.66 Mil.|
Revenue was 16.463 + 16.815 + 15.709 + 13.384 = $62.37 Mil.
Gross Profit was 5.244 + 6.279 + 5.245 + 5.115 = $21.88 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $28.10 Mil.
Total Assets was $534.88 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $402.79 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $28.49 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $4.80 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4.29 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.00 Mil.
Net Income was -0.019 + 6.915 + 5.199 + 13.159 = $25.25 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -8.318 + 4.638 + 6.071 + 12.044 = $14.44 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 10.058 + 10.313 + 8.935 + 9.685 = $38.99 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $3.88 Mil.
Revenue was 9.863 + 12.086 + 15.429 + 15.285 = $52.66 Mil.
Gross Profit was -0.683 + 0.709 + 1.291 + 2.468 = $3.79 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $9.22 Mil.
Total Assets was $496.87 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $414.36 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $36.00 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $9.82 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $7.44 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $83.50 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(6.663 / 62.371)||/||(3.876 / 52.663)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(3.785 / 52.663)||/||(21.883 / 62.371)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (28.097 + 402.785) / 534.882)||/||(1 - (9.222 + 414.363) / 496.873)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(35.999 / (35.999 + 414.363))||/||(28.489 / (28.489 + 402.785))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(4.8 / 62.371)||/||(9.824 / 52.663)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 4.289) / 534.882)||/||((83.5 + 7.443) / 496.873)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(25.254 - 14.435||-||38.991)||/||534.882|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Sandstorm Gold Ltd has a M-score of -2.00 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Sandstorm Gold Ltd Annual Data
Sandstorm Gold Ltd Quarterly Data