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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Steelcase Inc was -2.35. The lowest was -3.65. And the median was -2.70.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Steelcase Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9626||+||0.528 * 0.959||+||0.404 * 1.2113||+||0.892 * 0.9834||+||0.115 * 1.0538|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0689||+||4.679 * -0.0008||-||0.327 * 0.9531|
|This Year (Nov16) TTM:||Last Year (Nov15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $328 Mil.|
Revenue was 786.5 + 758 + 718.8 + 747.9 = $3,011 Mil.
Gross Profit was 261.9 + 263.1 + 229.8 + 234.3 = $989 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $803 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,773 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $401 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $61 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $812 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $520 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $295 Mil.
Net Income was 41.2 + 38.2 + 19.4 + 77.5 = $176 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 4.5 + 2.1 + 2.6 + 8.7 = $18 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 83.9 + 85.8 + -65.7 + 55.9 = $160 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $347 Mil.
Revenue was 787.6 + 819 + 705.5 + 749.9 = $3,062 Mil.
Gross Profit was 253.5 + 266.8 + 216.6 + 227.6 = $965 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $914 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,791 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $403 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $65 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $772 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $566 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $297 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(328.1 / 3011.2)||/||(346.6 / 3062)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(964.5 / 3062)||/||(989.1 / 3011.2)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (802.8 + 401.3) / 1773.1)||/||(1 - (913.7 + 403.1) / 1791.4)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(65.1 / (65.1 + 403.1))||/||(61 / (61 + 401.3))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(811.9 / 3011.2)||/||(772.4 / 3062)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((294.5 + 520) / 1773.1)||/||((297.1 + 566.3) / 1791.4)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(176.3 - 17.9||-||159.9)||/||1773.1|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Steelcase Inc has a M-score of -2.46 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Steelcase Inc Annual Data
Steelcase Inc Quarterly Data