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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Staples Inc was -1.74. The lowest was -3.27. And the median was -2.61.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Staples Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0519||+||0.528 * 0.9847||+||0.404 * 0.9642||+||0.892 * 0.9363||+||0.115 * 0.964|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0201||+||4.679 * -0.0576||-||0.327 * 1.0075|
|This Year (Jan16) TTM:||Last Year (Jan15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,899 Mil.|
Revenue was 5268 + 5593 + 4937 + 5262 = $21,060 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1382 + 1522 + 1264 + 1347 = $5,515 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $5,112 Mil.
Total Assets was $10,172 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,586 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $455 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $4,600 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,264 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,018 Mil.
Net Income was 86 + 198 + 36 + 59 = $379 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -4 + -8 + -2 + 1 = $-13 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 275 + 403 + 0 + 300 = $978 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,928 Mil.
Revenue was 5656 + 5962 + 5220 + 5654 = $22,492 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1486 + 1596 + 1308 + 1410 = $5,800 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,951 Mil.
Total Assets was $10,308 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,706 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $467 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $4,816 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,289 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,018 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1899 / 21060)||/||(1928 / 22492)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1522 / 22492)||/||(1382 / 21060)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (5112 + 1586) / 10172)||/||(1 - (4951 + 1706) / 10308)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(467 / (467 + 1706))||/||(455 / (455 + 1586))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(4600 / 21060)||/||(4816 / 22492)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1018 + 3264) / 10172)||/||((1018 + 3289) / 10308)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(379 - -13||-||978)||/||10172|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Staples Inc has a M-score of -2.79 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Staples Inc Annual Data
Staples Inc Quarterly Data