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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Sempra Energy has a M-score of signals that the company is a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Sempra Energy was -1.07. The lowest was -3.13. And the median was -2.59.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Sempra Energy for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 *||+||0.528 *||+||0.404 *||+||0.892 *||+||0.115 *|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 *||+||4.679 *||-||0.327 *|
|This Year (Mar14) TTM:||Last Year (Mar13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,495 Mil.|
Revenue was 2795 + 2705 + 2551 + 2651 = $10,702 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1489 + 1626 + 1586 + 1666 = $6,367 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,224 Mil.
Total Assets was $37,484 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $25,452 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,104 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,875 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $11,700 Mil.
Net Income was 247 + 282 + 301 + 246 = $1,076 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 97 + 72 + 58 + -166 = $61 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 904 + 454 + 225 + 270 = $1,853 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,638 Mil.
Revenue was 2650 + 2668 + 2507 + 2089 = $9,914 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1488 + 1557 + 1601 + 1397 = $6,043 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,123 Mil.
Total Assets was $37,273 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $25,458 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,128 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $5,189 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $10,680 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1495 / 10702)||/||(1638 / 9914)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1626 / 9914)||/||(1489 / 10702)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (4224 + 25452) / 37484)||/||(1 - (4123 + 25458) / 37273)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(1128 / (1128 + 25458))||/||(1104 / (1104 + 25452))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(0 / 10702)||/||(0 / 9914)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((11700 + 3875) / 37484)||/||((10680 + 5189) / 37273)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(1076 - 61||-||1853)||/||37484|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Sempra Energy has a M-score of signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Sempra Energy Annual Data
Sempra Energy Quarterly Data