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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Steiner Leisure Ltd has a M-score of -2.45 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Steiner Leisure Ltd was 0.42. The lowest was -3.56. And the median was -2.51.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Steiner Leisure Ltd for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.1119||+||0.528 * 1.0631||+||0.404 * 0.9809||+||0.892 * 1.0427||+||0.115 * 0.9791|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0139||+||4.679 * -0.0357||-||0.327 * 0.8918|
|This Year (Mar14) TTM:||Last Year (Mar13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $78.0 Mil.|
Revenue was 216.736 + 220.964 + 214.831 + 207.653 = $860.2 Mil.
Gross Profit was 44.911 + 46.129 + 44.316 + 45.553 = $180.9 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $217.8 Mil.
Total Assets was $770.4 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $111.3 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $22.8 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $127.5 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $199.2 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $93.1 Mil.
Net Income was 7.361 + 12.955 + 11.452 + 12.292 = $44.1 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.143 + 0.459 + 0.132 + 0.159 = $0.9 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -9.817 + 40.948 + 7.025 + 32.535 = $70.7 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $67.3 Mil.
Revenue was 212.014 + 211.079 + 204.388 + 197.481 = $825.0 Mil.
Gross Profit was 50.223 + 47.318 + 41.203 + 45.713 = $184.5 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $212.8 Mil.
Total Assets was $750.8 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $99.5 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $19.9 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $120.6 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $201.9 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $117.6 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(77.99 / 860.184)||/||(67.267 / 824.962)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(46.129 / 824.962)||/||(44.911 / 860.184)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (217.819 + 111.251) / 770.382)||/||(1 - (212.815 + 99.531) / 750.837)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(19.86 / (19.86 + 99.531))||/||(22.768 / (22.768 + 111.251))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(127.533 / 860.184)||/||(120.639 / 824.962)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((93.139 + 199.206) / 770.382)||/||((117.562 + 201.935) / 750.837)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(44.06 - 0.893||-||70.691)||/||770.382|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Steiner Leisure Ltd has a M-score of -2.45 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Steiner Leisure Ltd Annual Data
Steiner Leisure Ltd Quarterly Data