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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of SUPERVALU Inc was 0.35. The lowest was -5.05. And the median was -2.76.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of SUPERVALU Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.8904||+||0.528 * 0.9817||+||0.404 * 0.995||+||0.892 * 1.0444||+||0.115 * 1.0152|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0366||+||4.679 * -0.0501||-||0.327 * 0.9615|
|This Year (Aug15) TTM:||Last Year (Aug14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $491 Mil.|
Revenue was 4062 + 5407 + 4364 + 4204 = $18,037 Mil.
Gross Profit was 583 + 810 + 661 + 593 = $2,647 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,844 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,612 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,430 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $278 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,200 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,886 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,405 Mil.
Net Income was 31 + 61 + 39 + 79 = $210 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -88 + 2 + 1 + 1 = $-84 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 165 + 112 + 302 + -54 = $525 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $528 Mil.
Revenue was 4041 + 5264 + 3953 + 4012 = $17,270 Mil.
Gross Profit was 574 + 755 + 590 + 569 = $2,488 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,723 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,486 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,455 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $288 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,032 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,631 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,710 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(491 / 18037)||/||(528 / 17270)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(810 / 17270)||/||(583 / 18037)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1844 + 1430) / 4612)||/||(1 - (1723 + 1455) / 4486)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(288 / (288 + 1455))||/||(278 / (278 + 1430))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(2200 / 18037)||/||(2032 / 17270)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((2405 + 1886) / 4612)||/||((2710 + 1631) / 4486)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(210 - -84||-||525)||/||4612|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
SUPERVALU Inc has a M-score of -2.78 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
SUPERVALU Inc Annual Data
SUPERVALU Inc Quarterly Data