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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Schweitzer-Mauduit International Inc was -2.21. The lowest was -3.26. And the median was -2.72.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Schweitzer-Mauduit International Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.177||+||0.528 * 0.9141||+||0.404 * 1.5233||+||0.892 * 1.0168||+||0.115 * 0.9584|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.1196||+||4.679 * -0.0538||-||0.327 * 1.0815|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $137.4 Mil.|
Revenue was 214.6 + 209.8 + 184.4 + 181.9 = $790.7 Mil.
Gross Profit was 63.5 + 65.8 + 52.4 + 54.8 = $236.5 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $477.1 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,330.0 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $312.7 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $42.1 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $97.0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $136.5 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $578.8 Mil.
Net Income was 21.1 + 21.7 + 25.8 + 23.4 = $92.0 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 2.3 + 2.7 + 1.3 + 6.1 = $12.4 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 17.6 + 64.5 + 24.5 + 44.5 = $151.1 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $114.8 Mil.
Revenue was 188 + 181.7 + 204.3 + 203.6 = $777.6 Mil.
Gross Profit was 51.4 + 49.1 + 52.9 + 59.2 = $212.6 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $506.7 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,134.1 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $325.0 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $41.7 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $85.2 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $124.4 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $439.6 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(137.4 / 790.7)||/||(114.8 / 777.6)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(212.6 / 777.6)||/||(236.5 / 790.7)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (477.1 + 312.7) / 1330)||/||(1 - (506.7 + 325) / 1134.1)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(41.7 / (41.7 + 325))||/||(42.1 / (42.1 + 312.7))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(97 / 790.7)||/||(85.2 / 777.6)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((578.8 + 136.5) / 1330)||/||((439.6 + 124.4) / 1134.1)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(92 - 12.4||-||151.1)||/||1330|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Schweitzer-Mauduit International Inc has a M-score of -2.44 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Schweitzer-Mauduit International Inc Annual Data
Schweitzer-Mauduit International Inc Quarterly Data