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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Symantec Corp was -1.01. The lowest was -6.57. And the median was -2.79.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Symantec Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.6291||+||0.528 * 0.9975||+||0.404 * 1.0699||+||0.892 * 0.9886||+||0.115 * 0.6584|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9144||+||4.679 * 0.1504||-||0.327 * 1.3625|
|This Year (Sep16) TTM:||Last Year (Sep15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $459 Mil.|
Revenue was 979 + 884 + 873 + 909 = $3,645 Mil.
Gross Profit was 769 + 735 + 726 + 759 = $2,989 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $6,469 Mil.
Total Assets was $16,864 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $933 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $351 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,619 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,509 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $6,576 Mil.
Net Income was -144 + 135 + 2045 + 170 = $2,206 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 10 + 13 + 3 + -1 = $25 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 55 + -772 + 250 + 112 = $-355 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $738 Mil.
Revenue was 906 + 912 + 899 + 970 = $3,687 Mil.
Gross Profit was 746 + 754 + 723 + 793 = $3,016 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,664 Mil.
Total Assets was $12,460 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,262 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $277 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,791 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,729 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,740 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(459 / 3645)||/||(738 / 3687)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(3016 / 3687)||/||(2989 / 3645)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (6469 + 933) / 16864)||/||(1 - (4664 + 1262) / 12460)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(277 / (277 + 1262))||/||(351 / (351 + 933))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1619 / 3645)||/||(1791 / 3687)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((6576 + 3509) / 16864)||/||((1740 + 3729) / 12460)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(2206 - 25||-||-355)||/||16864|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Symantec Corp has a M-score of -2.24 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Symantec Corp Annual Data
Symantec Corp Quarterly Data