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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Symantec Corp has a M-score of -2.61 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Symantec Corp was -1.01. The lowest was -6.57. And the median was -2.79.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Symantec Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9544||+||0.528 * 1.0016||+||0.404 * 0.9795||+||0.892 * 0.9647||+||0.115 * 1.2883|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9269||+||4.679 * -0.0238||-||0.327 * 0.9633|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Jun14) TTM:||Last Year (Jun13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $685 Mil.|
Revenue was 1735 + 1625 + 1705 + 1637 = $6,702 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1426 + 1343 + 1422 + 1353 = $5,544 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $5,288 Mil.
Total Assets was $13,164 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,140 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $451 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,857 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,979 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,095 Mil.
Net Income was 236 + 217 + 283 + 241 = $977 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 1 + 8 + -1 + 20 = $28 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 293 + 449 + 329 + 191 = $1,262 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $744 Mil.
Revenue was 1709 + 1748 + 1791 + 1699 = $6,947 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1409 + 1440 + 1492 + 1415 = $5,756 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $5,179 Mil.
Total Assets was $13,151 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,102 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $634 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $3,195 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4,205 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,094 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(685 / 6702)||/||(744 / 6947)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1343 / 6947)||/||(1426 / 6702)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (5288 + 1140) / 13164)||/||(1 - (5179 + 1102) / 13151)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(634 / (634 + 1102))||/||(451 / (451 + 1140))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(2857 / 6702)||/||(3195 / 6947)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((2095 + 3979) / 13164)||/||((2094 + 4205) / 13151)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(977 - 28||-||1262)||/||13164|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Symantec Corp has a M-score of -2.61 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Symantec Corp Annual Data
Symantec Corp Quarterly Data