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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Symantec Corp was -1.11. The lowest was -6.34. And the median was -2.77.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Symantec Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0116||+||0.528 * 1.0061||+||0.404 * 0.9982||+||0.892 * 0.9748||+||0.115 * 1.1442|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9607||+||4.679 * -0.0336||-||0.327 * 0.9908|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Mar15) TTM:||Last Year (Mar14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $993 Mil.|
Revenue was 1518 + 1638 + 1617 + 1735 = $6,508 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1231 + 1359 + 1339 + 1426 = $5,355 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $5,422 Mil.
Total Assets was $13,233 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,205 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $439 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,702 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4,453 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,746 Mil.
Net Income was 176 + 222 + 244 + 236 = $878 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 7 + 2 + 1 + 1 = $11 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 488 + 358 + 173 + 293 = $1,312 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,007 Mil.
Revenue was 1625 + 1705 + 1637 + 1709 = $6,676 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1343 + 1422 + 1353 + 1409 = $5,527 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $5,652 Mil.
Total Assets was $13,539 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,116 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $491 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,885 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4,306 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,095 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(993 / 6508)||/||(1007 / 6676)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1359 / 6676)||/||(1231 / 6508)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (5422 + 1205) / 13233)||/||(1 - (5652 + 1116) / 13539)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(491 / (491 + 1116))||/||(439 / (439 + 1205))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(2702 / 6508)||/||(2885 / 6676)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1746 + 4453) / 13233)||/||((2095 + 4306) / 13539)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(878 - 11||-||1312)||/||13233|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Symantec Corp has a M-score of -2.62 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Symantec Corp Annual Data
Symantec Corp Quarterly Data