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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Sysco Corporation has a M-score of -2.66 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Sysco Corporation was -2.09. The lowest was -2.93. And the median was -2.60.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Sysco Corporation for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9917||+||0.528 * 1.0324||+||0.404 * 1.0293||+||0.892 * 1.0471||+||0.115 * 0.8869|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0024||+||4.679 * -0.048||-||0.327 * 1.0187|
|This Year (Dec13) TTM:||Last Year (Dec12) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $3,290 Mil.|
Revenue was 11237.969 + 11714.267 + 11601.056 + 10926.371 = $45,480 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1964.951 + 2065.487 + 2036.162 + 1910.319 = $7,977 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $6,521 Mil.
Total Assets was $13,013 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $3,967 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $534 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $6,350 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,749 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,944 Mil.
Net Income was 210.835 + 285.59 + 283.043 + 201.417 = $981 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 4.211 + 4.534 + 9.832 + 3.41 = $22 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 288.935 + 169.229 + 752.186 + 372.623 = $1,583 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $3,168 Mil.
Revenue was 10796.89 + 11086.916 + 11045.382 + 10504.746 = $43,434 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1952.11 + 2029.795 + 2011.711 + 1871.616 = $7,865 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $6,160 Mil.
Total Assets was $12,471 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $3,961 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $466 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $6,050 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,487 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,809 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(3289.93 / 45479.663)||/||(3168.12 / 43433.934)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(2065.487 / 43433.934)||/||(1964.951 / 45479.663)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (6520.856 + 3967.176) / 13013.025)||/||(1 - (6159.785 + 3960.636) / 12471.302)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(465.812 / (465.812 + 3960.636))||/||(534.102 / (534.102 + 3967.176))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(6349.899 / 45479.663)||/||(6049.505 / 43433.934)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((2944.083 + 3749.25) / 13013.025)||/||((2809.29 + 3487.417) / 12471.302)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(980.885 - 21.987||-||1582.973)||/||13013.025|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Sysco Corporation has a M-score of -2.66 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Sysco Corporation Annual Data
Sysco Corporation Quarterly Data