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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Taser International Inc was 5.77. The lowest was -3.85. And the median was -2.65.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Taser International Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0521||+||0.528 * 0.969||+||0.404 * 1.1835||+||0.892 * 1.2838||+||0.115 * 1.0107|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.2227||+||4.679 * -0.0874||-||0.327 * 1.7329|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.
|This Year (Sep16) TTM:||Last Year (Sep15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $32.9 Mil.|
Revenue was 71.882 + 58.756 + 55.53 + 56.041 = $242.2 Mil.
Gross Profit was 46.565 + 37.299 + 36.902 + 36.988 = $157.8 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $168.4 Mil.
Total Assets was $252.2 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $23.0 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $3.7 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $98.7 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $67.8 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
Net Income was 3.843 + 3.65 + 3.463 + 5.104 = $16.1 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0.0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 11.623 + 3.243 + 7.093 + 16.131 = $38.1 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $24.3 Mil.
Revenue was 50.376 + 46.713 + 44.762 + 46.816 = $188.7 Mil.
Gross Profit was 31.068 + 30.723 + 29.868 + 27.413 = $119.1 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $150.2 Mil.
Total Assets was $213.5 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $19.9 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $3.3 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $62.9 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $33.0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.1 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(32.858 / 242.209)||/||(24.328 / 188.667)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(119.072 / 188.667)||/||(157.754 / 242.209)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (168.448 + 22.976) / 252.2)||/||(1 - (150.155 + 19.855) / 213.477)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(3.259 / (3.259 + 19.855))||/||(3.725 / (3.725 + 22.976))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(98.696 / 242.209)||/||(62.878 / 188.667)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 67.77) / 252.2)||/||((0.098 + 33.006) / 213.477)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(16.06 - 0||-||38.09)||/||252.2|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Taser International Inc has a M-score of -2.81 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Taser International Inc Annual Data
Taser International Inc Quarterly Data