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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Taser International Inc was 5.77. The lowest was -3.83. And the median was -2.52.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Taser International Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.8505||+||0.528 * 0.9891||+||0.404 * 0.8958||+||0.892 * 1.2056||+||0.115 * 1.1652|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9274||+||4.679 * -0.1042||-||0.327 * 1.0363|
|This Year (Mar15) TTM:||Last Year (Mar14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $21.0 Mil.|
Revenue was 44.762 + 46.816 + 44.349 + 37.175 = $173.1 Mil.
Gross Profit was 29.868 + 27.413 + 28.713 + 23.214 = $109.2 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $143.2 Mil.
Total Assets was $195.8 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $17.2 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $3.8 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $55.3 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $30.1 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
Net Income was 7.205 + 5.086 + 7.558 + 3.884 = $23.7 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0.0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 13.008 + 12.794 + 16.676 + 1.652 = $44.1 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $20.5 Mil.
Revenue was 36.185 + 40.025 + 35.197 + 32.175 = $143.6 Mil.
Gross Profit was 22.208 + 25.554 + 22.096 + 19.742 = $89.6 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $113.1 Mil.
Total Assets was $164.8 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $18.4 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $4.9 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $49.4 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $24.4 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.1 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(21.022 / 173.102)||/||(20.501 / 143.582)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(27.413 / 143.582)||/||(29.868 / 173.102)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (143.17 + 17.213) / 195.811)||/||(1 - (113.085 + 18.398) / 164.762)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(4.874 / (4.874 + 18.398))||/||(3.772 / (3.772 + 17.213))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(55.278 / 173.102)||/||(49.443 / 143.582)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0.019 + 30.121) / 195.811)||/||((0.058 + 24.414) / 164.762)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(23.733 - 0||-||44.13)||/||195.811|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Taser International Inc has a M-score of -2.95 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Taser International Inc Annual Data
Taser International Inc Quarterly Data