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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Total SA was -1.31. The lowest was -4.54. And the median was -2.84.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Total SA for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.1454||+||0.528 * 0.8696||+||0.404 * 1.0155||+||0.892 * 0.6902||+||0.115 * 1.2664|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.3123||+||4.679 * -0.0785||-||0.327 * 0.9812|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $12,220 Mil.|
Revenue was 27522 + 32292 + 34897 + 39269 = $133,980 Mil.
Gross Profit was 9883 + 10418 + 10657 + 12916 = $43,874 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $66,667 Mil.
Total Assets was $224,159 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $111,636 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $17,645 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $18,415 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $48,261 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $43,138 Mil.
Net Income was 1606 + -1626 + 1079 + 2971 = $4,030 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 964 + 1596 + 506 + 1131 = $4,197 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1881 + 4838 + 5989 + 4732 = $17,440 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $15,458 Mil.
Revenue was 36963 + 46734 + 54222 + 56207 = $194,126 Mil.
Gross Profit was 12759 + 11090 + 15594 + 15836 = $55,279 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $76,199 Mil.
Total Assets was $227,921 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $105,806 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $22,109 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $20,332 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $52,884 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $41,827 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(12220 / 133980)||/||(15458 / 194126)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(10418 / 194126)||/||(9883 / 133980)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (66667 + 111636) / 224159)||/||(1 - (76199 + 105806) / 227921)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(22109 / (22109 + 105806))||/||(17645 / (17645 + 111636))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(18415 / 133980)||/||(20332 / 194126)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((43138 + 48261) / 224159)||/||((41827 + 52884) / 227921)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(4030 - 4197||-||17440)||/||224159|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Total SA has a M-score of -3.07 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Total SA Annual Data
Total SA Quarterly Data