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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Tutor Perini Corp was 4.05. The lowest was -3.96. And the median was -2.32.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Tutor Perini Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0801||+||0.528 * 1.4212||+||0.404 * 1.0399||+||0.892 * 1.073||+||0.115 * 1.0746|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.8444||+||4.679 * 0.0023||-||0.327 * 0.9776|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,616 Mil.|
Revenue was 1085.369 + 1200.83 + 1340.739 + 1312.438 = $4,939 Mil.
Gross Profit was 105.092 + 66.673 + 100.201 + 98.62 = $371 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,732 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,131 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $520 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $48 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $245 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,552 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $726 Mil.
Net Income was 15.4 + 8.712 + 19.677 + 11.777 = $56 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.682 + 7.192 + 5.916 + 0.1 = $14 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 15.944 + -6.602 + 52.432 + -29.434 = $32 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,394 Mil.
Revenue was 1066.465 + 1201.877 + 1250.689 + 1084.51 = $4,604 Mil.
Gross Profit was 90.759 + 129.723 + 140.841 + 129.531 = $491 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,472 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,766 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $524 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $52 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $271 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,329 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $796 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1615.661 / 4939.376)||/||(1394.12 / 4603.541)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(490.854 / 4603.541)||/||(370.586 / 4939.376)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (2732.297 + 519.89) / 4131.482)||/||(1 - (2472.01 + 523.622) / 3766.48)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(51.907 / (51.907 + 523.622))||/||(47.631 / (47.631 + 519.89))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(245.135 / 4939.376)||/||(270.577 / 4603.541)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((725.763 + 1552.422) / 4131.482)||/||((795.742 + 1328.749) / 3766.48)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(55.566 - 13.89||-||32.34)||/||4131.482|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Tutor Perini Corp has a M-score of -2.05 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Tutor Perini Corp Annual Data
Tutor Perini Corp Quarterly Data