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TripAdvisor Inc (NAS:TRIP)
Beneish M-Score
-2.84 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

TripAdvisor Inc has a M-score of -2.84 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

TRIP' s Beneish M-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: -3.11   Max: -2.16
Current: -2.84

-3.11
-2.16

During the past 8 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of TripAdvisor Inc was -2.16. The lowest was -3.11. And the median was -2.67.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of TripAdvisor Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 0.9853+0.528 * 1.0071+0.404 * 1.0046+0.892 * 1.0014+0.115 * 0.9659
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1.1542+4.679 * -0.0953-0.327 * 0.6249
=-2.84

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

This Year (Sep16) TTM:Last Year (Sep15) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $221 Mil.
Revenue was 421 + 391 + 352 + 309 = $1,473 Mil.
Gross Profit was 402 + 371 + 336 + 297 = $1,406 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $966 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,277 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $262 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $99 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $935 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $450 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $20 Mil.
Net Income was 55 + 34 + 27 + 3 = $119 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 16 = $16 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -80 + 237 + 120 + 43 = $320 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $224 Mil.
Revenue was 415 + 405 + 363 + 288 = $1,471 Mil.
Gross Profit was 399 + 389 + 350 + 276 = $1,414 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $943 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,198 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $247 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $89 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $809 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $356 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $370 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(221 / 1473) / (224 / 1471)
=0.15003394 / 0.15227736
=0.9853

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(1414 / 1471) / (1406 / 1473)
=0.96125085 / 0.9545146
=1.0071

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (966 + 262) / 2277) / (1 - (943 + 247) / 2198)
=0.4606939 / 0.45859873
=1.0046

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=1473 / 1471
=1.0014

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(89 / (89 + 247)) / (99 / (99 + 262))
=0.26488095 / 0.27423823
=0.9659

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(935 / 1473) / (809 / 1471)
=0.634759 / 0.54996601
=1.1542

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((20 + 450) / 2277) / ((370 + 356) / 2198)
=0.20641195 / 0.33030027
=0.6249

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(119 - 16 - 320) / 2277
=-0.0953

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

TripAdvisor Inc has a M-score of -2.84 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

TripAdvisor Inc Annual Data

Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14Dec15
DSRI 1.01041.00111.121.01350.9955
GMI 1.00190.99861.00341.01351.007
AQI 0.87730.76661.07761.00950.9154
SGI 1.31451.19771.23851.31851.1974
DEPI 1.10571.1461.22091.22030.914
SGAI 1.07211.12451.10021.02531.1957
LVGI 3.070.68040.89410.98450.6629
TATA -0.0466-0.0323-0.0964-0.0775-0.094
M-score -3.13-2.45-2.53-2.51-2.71

TripAdvisor Inc Quarterly Data

Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15Jun15Sep15Dec15Mar16Jun16Sep16
DSRI 1.07451.24681.01351.13740.99860.99060.99550.95540.90970.9853
GMI 1.00781.00731.01461.01331.01311.01281.00631.00691.00711.0071
AQI 0.84081.00921.00950.87760.98040.89430.91540.96910.95851.0046
SGI 1.24781.29911.31851.33331.31531.25621.19741.11521.04041.0014
DEPI 1.4231.30321.22031.07240.9780.96130.9140.89420.91530.9659
SGAI 1.12781.12861.02311.05641.07811.04551.19571.19171.14961.1542
LVGI 0.94330.89740.98450.92871.07460.94040.66290.73020.71440.6249
TATA -0.1469-0.091-0.078-0.0702-0.0874-0.076-0.094-0.1161-0.1333-0.0953
M-score -2.89-2.36-2.51-2.41-2.65-2.64-2.71-2.93-3.11-2.84
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