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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 9 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of TripAdvisor Inc was -2.53. The lowest was -2.85. And the median was -2.70.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of TripAdvisor Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0585||+||0.528 * 1.0103||+||0.404 * 0.9621||+||0.892 * 0.992||+||0.115 * 0.9777|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0036||+||4.679 * -0.0894||-||0.327 * 0.954|
|This Year (Dec16) TTM:||Last Year (Dec15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $189 Mil.|
Revenue was 316 + 421 + 391 + 352 = $1,480 Mil.
Gross Profit was 300 + 402 + 371 + 336 = $1,409 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $950 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,238 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $260 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $101 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $898 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $423 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $175 Mil.
Net Income was 1 + 55 + 34 + 27 = $117 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -4 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $-4 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 44 + -80 + 237 + 120 = $321 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $180 Mil.
Revenue was 309 + 415 + 405 + 363 = $1,492 Mil.
Gross Profit was 297 + 399 + 389 + 350 = $1,435 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $865 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,128 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $247 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $93 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $902 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $312 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $284 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(189 / 1480)||/||(180 / 1492)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1435 / 1492)||/||(1409 / 1480)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (950 + 260) / 2238)||/||(1 - (865 + 247) / 2128)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(93 / (93 + 247))||/||(101 / (101 + 260))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(898 / 1480)||/||(902 / 1492)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((175 + 423) / 2238)||/||((284 + 312) / 2128)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(117 - -4||-||321)||/||2238|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
TripAdvisor Inc has a M-score of -2.85 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
TripAdvisor Inc Annual Data
TripAdvisor Inc Quarterly Data