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TripAdvisor Inc (NAS:TRIP)
Beneish M-Score
-2.48 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

TripAdvisor Inc has a M-score of -2.37 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

TRIP' s 10-Year Beneish M-Score Range
Min: -2.53   Max: -2.48
Current: -2.48

-2.53
-2.48

During the past 6 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of TripAdvisor Inc was -2.48. The lowest was -2.53. And the median was -2.51.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of TripAdvisor Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 1.2471+0.528 * 1.007+0.404 * 1.0092+0.892 * 1.2987+0.115 * 1.3191
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1.1301+4.679 * -0.0949-0.327 * 0.8974
=-2.37

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Sep14) TTM:Last Year (Sep13) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $180 Mil.
Revenue was 354 + 323 + 281 + 212.661 = $1,171 Mil.
Gross Profit was 343 + 314 + 273 + 209.947 = $1,140 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $792 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,956 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $161 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $54 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $616 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $417 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $270 Mil.
Net Income was 54 + 68 + 68 + 20.443 = $210 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + -1.536 = $-2 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 59 + 158 + 109 + 71.523 = $398 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $111 Mil.
Revenue was 255 + 247 + 230 + 169.393 = $901 Mil.
Gross Profit was 249 + 243 + 226 + 165.855 = $884 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $648 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,448 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $65 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $32 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $420 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $257 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $310 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(180 / 1170.661) / (111.138 / 901.393)
=0.15375929 / 0.12329583
=1.2471

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(314 / 901.393) / (343 / 1170.661)
=0.98054345 / 0.97376354
=1.007

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (792 + 161) / 1956) / (1 - (647.752 + 64.551) / 1448.153)
=0.51278119 / 0.50813001
=1.0092

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=1170.661 / 901.393
=1.2987

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(32.134 / (32.134 + 64.551)) / (54.226 / (54.226 + 161))
=0.33235766 / 0.25194911
=1.3191

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(616.474 / 1170.661) / (420.039 / 901.393)
=0.52660335 / 0.46598875
=1.1301

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((270 + 417) / 1956) / ((310 + 256.811) / 1448.153)
=0.35122699 / 0.3914027
=0.8974

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(210.443 - -1.536 - 397.523) / 1956
=-0.0949

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

TripAdvisor Inc has a M-score of -2.37 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

TripAdvisor Inc Annual Data

Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13
DSRI 1.00120.9621
GMI 0.99871.003
AQI 0.76661.0778
SGI 1.19761.2381
DEPI 1.14391.2368
SGAI 1.08471.102
LVGI 0.68040.8939
TATA -0.032-0.0968
M-score -2.44-2.68

TripAdvisor Inc Quarterly Data

Jun12Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14
DSRI 1.15970.87480.96211.0831.07481.2471
GMI 1.00021.00421.00191.00441.00741.007
AQI 1.24321.23391.077810.84081.0092
SGI 1.22821.23251.23811.23031.24741.2987
DEPI 1.15991.16361.23681.40231.44371.3191
SGAI 0.9931.0191.10441.11111.12951.1301
LVGI 0.86410.93430.89390.96010.94330.8974
TATA -0.0406-0.0895-0.0968-0.1248-0.1472-0.0949
M-score -2.16-2.67-2.68-2.74-2.89-2.37
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