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TSR Inc (NAS:TSRI)
Beneish M-Score
-2.88 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

TSR Inc has a M-score of -2.88 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

TSRI' s 10-Year Beneish M-Score Range
Min: -3.32   Max: 0.67
Current: -2.88

-3.32
0.67

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of TSR Inc was 0.67. The lowest was -3.32. And the median was -2.71.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of TSR Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 0.8594+0.528 * 1.0301+0.404 * 0.4129+0.892 * 1.159+0.115 * 0.8746
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 0.9287+4.679 * -0.0375-0.327 * 1.0287
=-2.88

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (May15) TTM:Last Year (May14) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $8.76 Mil.
Revenue was 14.97 + 14.213 + 14.534 + 13.686 = $57.40 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2.431 + 2.131 + 2.454 + 2.299 = $9.32 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $13.94 Mil.
Total Assets was $14.05 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $0.04 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $0.02 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $8.88 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4.95 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.00 Mil.
Net Income was 0.112 + -0.085 + 0.141 + 0.025 = $0.19 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.001 + -0.003 + 0.002 + 0.006 = $0.01 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1.001 + -0.969 + -0.694 + 1.376 = $0.71 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $8.79 Mil.
Revenue was 13.149 + 12.128 + 12.166 + 12.087 = $49.53 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2.186 + 1.929 + 2.066 + 2.098 = $8.28 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $13.35 Mil.
Total Assets was $13.56 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $0.03 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $0.02 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $8.25 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4.64 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.00 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(8.755 / 57.403) / (8.79 / 49.53)
=0.15251816 / 0.1774682
=0.8594

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(2.131 / 49.53) / (2.431 / 57.403)
=0.16715122 / 0.16227375
=1.0301

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (13.935 + 0.039) / 14.051) / (1 - (13.349 + 0.034) / 13.563)
=0.00548004 / 0.0132714
=0.4129

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=57.403 / 49.53
=1.159

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(0.015 / (0.015 + 0.034)) / (0.021 / (0.021 + 0.039))
=0.30612245 / 0.35
=0.8746

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(8.883 / 57.403) / (8.253 / 49.53)
=0.15474801 / 0.16662629
=0.9287

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((0 + 4.948) / 14.051) / ((0 + 4.643) / 13.563)
=0.35214575 / 0.34232839
=1.0287

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(0.193 - 0.006 - 0.714) / 14.051
=-0.0375

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

TSR Inc has a M-score of -2.88 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

TSR Inc Annual Data

May06May07May08May09May10May11May12May13May14May15
DSRI 1.1910.94440.9630.94081.18471.2870.85131.05480.87150.8594
GMI 1.11481.05471.01191.01441.01560.9671.10721.00670.98111.0299
AQI 8.28180.69341.02090.11520.91523.10190.2762.54670.92220.4129
SGI 0.93521.03281.04090.82750.86341.06461.14930.99331.10281.159
DEPI 1.29251.02020.70721.02130.91671.63641.03330.77961.29310.944
SGAI 1.08790.91620.98951.08481.07671.0140.96841.08950.92610.9287
LVGI 1.16560.92090.95680.89061.04781.26571.05761.27230.99431.0287
TATA 0.01370.00510.0004-0.0651-0.00960.0596-0.02470.038-0.0451-0.0375
M-score 0.67-2.53-2.48-3.32-2.54-1.06-2.84-1.76-2.71-2.87

TSR Inc Quarterly Data

Feb13May13Aug13Nov13Feb14May14Aug14Nov14Feb15May15
DSRI 0.91061.05481.06180.97930.98380.87150.75770.82950.93620.8594
GMI 1.02881.00640.98480.97350.97330.98121.00431.01041.02861.0301
AQI 1.23952.54675.73231.72511.87030.92220.34860.35530.63830.4129
SGI 0.99040.99331.01291.06151.11211.10281.11851.13061.13591.159
DEPI 0.81970.74440.87530.87871.42581.41561.37651.34310.89970.8746
SGAI 1.11641.08951.05580.97770.92610.92610.92510.94080.93690.9287
LVGI 1.23471.27231.2040.96491.04520.99431.06071.08281.02591.0287
TATA -0.03870.0380.0760.050.0163-0.045-0.1578-0.10770.0101-0.0375
M-score -2.76-1.76-0.24-1.93-1.93-2.70-3.56-3.26-2.51-2.88
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