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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Caldwell Partners International, Inc. has a M-score of -3.94 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Caldwell Partners International, Inc. was 129.93. The lowest was -10000000.00. And the median was -2.72.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Caldwell Partners International, Inc. for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.6076||+||0.528 * 1.028||+||0.404 * 0.7333||+||0.892 * 1.2035||+||0.115 * 0.9977|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9989||+||4.679 * -0.2409||-||0.327 * 1.1891|
|This Year (Feb14) TTM:||Last Year (Feb13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was C$4.61 Mil.|
Revenue was 9.158 + 10.339 + 10.338 + 9.223 = C$39.06 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2.298 + 2.584 + 2.731 + 2.04 = C$9.65 Mil.
Total Current Assets was C$20.60 Mil.
Total Assets was C$23.94 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was C$1.36 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was C$0.45 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was C$8.76 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was C$10.15 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was C$0.00 Mil.
Net Income was 0.043 + 0.393 + 0.793 + -0.366 = C$0.86 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.004 + 0.001 + -0.024 + 0.002 = C$-0.02 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -1.702 + 2.182 + 3.537 + 2.629 = C$6.65 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was C$6.30 Mil.
Revenue was 6.825 + 7.417 + 8.856 + 9.357 = C$32.46 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1.23 + 1.797 + 2.621 + 2.598 = C$8.25 Mil.
Total Current Assets was C$13.07 Mil.
Total Assets was C$16.35 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was C$1.43 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was C$0.47 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was C$7.29 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was C$5.83 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was C$0.00 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(4.605 / 39.058)||/||(6.298 / 32.455)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(2.584 / 32.455)||/||(2.298 / 39.058)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (20.603 + 1.358) / 23.94)||/||(1 - (13.074 + 1.432) / 16.349)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(0.472 / (0.472 + 1.432))||/||(0.449 / (0.449 + 1.358))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(8.762 / 39.058)||/||(7.289 / 32.455)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 10.153) / 23.94)||/||((0 + 5.831) / 16.349)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(0.863 - -0.017||-||6.646)||/||23.94|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Caldwell Partners International, Inc. has a M-score of -3.94 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Caldwell Partners International, Inc. Annual Data
Caldwell Partners International, Inc. Quarterly Data