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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of TeleCommunication Systems Inc was -0.01. The lowest was -6.38. And the median was -2.77.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of TeleCommunication Systems Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.1383||+||0.528 * 0.9545||+||0.404 * 0.9525||+||0.892 * 1.0114||+||0.115 * 1.1403|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9538||+||4.679 * 0.0235||-||0.327 * 0.9657|
|This Year (Mar15) TTM:||Last Year (Mar14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $51.2 Mil.|
Revenue was 81.867 + 93.194 + 95.332 + 86.221 = $356.6 Mil.
Gross Profit was 33.765 + 38.626 + 35.906 + 38.235 = $146.5 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $164.3 Mil.
Total Assets was $324.9 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $31.9 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $17.8 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $77.2 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $85.9 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $119.3 Mil.
Net Income was 0.295 + -0.348 + -1.964 + 1.058 = $-1.0 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.289 + -1.004 + -0.891 + -0.212 = $-1.8 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 8.452 + -5.892 + -4.777 + -4.545 = $-6.8 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $44.4 Mil.
Revenue was 85.09 + 78.622 + 96.033 + 92.842 = $352.6 Mil.
Gross Profit was 34.799 + 31.797 + 35.783 + 35.907 = $138.3 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $151.1 Mil.
Total Assets was $320.9 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $36.3 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $25.1 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $80.1 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $94.2 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $115.6 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(51.17 / 356.614)||/||(44.447 / 352.587)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(38.626 / 352.587)||/||(33.765 / 356.614)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (164.307 + 31.857) / 324.923)||/||(1 - (151.056 + 36.334) / 320.895)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(25.135 / (25.135 + 36.334))||/||(17.811 / (17.811 + 31.857))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(77.239 / 356.614)||/||(80.065 / 352.587)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((119.278 + 85.908) / 324.923)||/||((115.593 + 94.238) / 320.895)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-0.959 - -1.818||-||-6.762)||/||324.923|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
TeleCommunication Systems Inc has a M-score of -2.24 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
TeleCommunication Systems Inc Annual Data
TeleCommunication Systems Inc Quarterly Data