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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Time Warner Inc was 2.33. The lowest was -5.31. And the median was -2.49.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Time Warner Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.988||+||0.528 * 0.9627||+||0.404 * 1.0227||+||0.892 * 0.988||+||0.115 * 1.0024|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9641||+||4.679 * 0.0035||-||0.327 * 0.9864|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Jun16) TTM:||Last Year (Jun15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $7,813 Mil.|
Revenue was 6952 + 7308 + 7079 + 6564 = $27,903 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3112 + 3303 + 2727 + 3038 = $12,180 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $12,962 Mil.
Total Assets was $64,127 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,516 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $683 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $4,896 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $6,972 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $24,418 Mil.
Net Income was 952 + 1214 + 857 + 1035 = $4,058 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -131 + -40 + 40 + -54 = $-185 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1213 + 753 + 850 + 1201 = $4,017 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $8,004 Mil.
Revenue was 7348 + 7127 + 7525 + 6243 = $28,243 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3160 + 3039 + 3107 + 2562 = $11,868 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $13,810 Mil.
Total Assets was $63,425 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,567 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $699 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $5,140 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $9,195 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $22,281 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(7813 / 27903)||/||(8004 / 28243)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(11868 / 28243)||/||(12180 / 27903)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (12962 + 2516) / 64127)||/||(1 - (13810 + 2567) / 63425)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(699 / (699 + 2567))||/||(683 / (683 + 2516))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(4896 / 27903)||/||(5140 / 28243)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((24418 + 6972) / 64127)||/||((22281 + 9195) / 63425)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(4058 - -185||-||4017)||/||64127|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Time Warner Inc has a M-score of -2.48 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Time Warner Inc Annual Data
Time Warner Inc Quarterly Data