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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
United Continental Holdings Inc has a M-score of -3.57 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of United Continental Holdings Inc was -1.35. The lowest was -3.91. And the median was -2.86.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of United Continental Holdings Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0||+||0.528 * 0.9893||+||0.404 * 0||+||0.892 * 1.0162||+||0.115 * 0.1408|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.016||+||4.679 *||-||0.327 * 0|
|This Year (Dec14) TTM:||Last Year (Dec13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $0 Mil.|
Revenue was 9313 + 10563 + 10329 + 8696 = $38,901 Mil.
Gross Profit was 5203 + 5615 + 5377 + 4190 = $20,385 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $0 Mil.
Total Assets was $0 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $0 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,679 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $13,465 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0 Mil.
Net Income was 28 + 924 + 789 + -609 = $1,132 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -443 + -106 + 54 + -89 = $-584 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 0 + 574 + 1464 + 694 = $2,732 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,503 Mil.
Revenue was 9329 + 10228 + 10001 + 8721 = $38,279 Mil.
Gross Profit was 5511 + 5102 + 5083 + 4148 = $19,844 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $8,702 Mil.
Total Assets was $36,812 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $18,047 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $2,957 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $13,041 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $12,107 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $10,924 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(0 / 38901)||/||(1503 / 38279)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(5615 / 38279)||/||(5203 / 38901)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (0 + 0) / 0)||/||(1 - (8702 + 18047) / 36812)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(2957 / (2957 + 18047))||/||(1679 / (1679 + 0))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(13465 / 38901)||/||(13041 / 38279)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 0) / 0)||/||((10924 + 12107) / 36812)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(1132 - -584||-||2732)||/||0|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
United Continental Holdings Inc has a M-score of -3.57 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
United Continental Holdings Inc Annual Data
United Continental Holdings Inc Quarterly Data