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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Union Pacific Corp has a M-score of -2.61 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Union Pacific Corp was -0.86. The lowest was -10.64. And the median was -2.65.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Union Pacific Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9647||+||0.528 * 0.9858||+||0.404 * 1.2585||+||0.892 * 1.0572||+||0.115 * 1.0189|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9739||+||4.679 * -0.0524||-||0.327 * 1.0141|
|This Year (Mar14) TTM:||Last Year (Mar13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,542 Mil.|
Revenue was 5638 + 5630 + 5573 + 5470 = $22,311 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3798 + 3829 + 3810 + 3720 = $15,157 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,679 Mil.
Total Assets was $50,898 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $44,189 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,807 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $6,079 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4,188 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $9,544 Mil.
Net Income was 1088 + 1174 + 1151 + 1106 = $4,519 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 38 + 37 + 28 + 19 = $122 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1767 + 1942 + 1663 + 1694 = $7,066 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,512 Mil.
Revenue was 5290 + 5250 + 5343 + 5221 = $21,104 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3520 + 3495 + 3621 + 3498 = $14,134 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,646 Mil.
Total Assets was $48,561 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $42,376 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,767 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $5,904 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,610 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $9,309 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1542 / 22311)||/||(1512 / 21104)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(3829 / 21104)||/||(3798 / 22311)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (4679 + 44189) / 50898)||/||(1 - (4646 + 42376) / 48561)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(1767 / (1767 + 42376))||/||(1807 / (1807 + 44189))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(6079 / 22311)||/||(5904 / 21104)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((9544 + 4188) / 50898)||/||((9309 + 3610) / 48561)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(4519 - 122||-||7066)||/||50898|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Union Pacific Corp has a M-score of -2.61 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Union Pacific Corp Annual Data
Union Pacific Corp Quarterly Data