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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Unit Corp was 14.85. The lowest was -8.10. And the median was -2.91.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Unit Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.7755||+||0.528 * -0.1615||+||0.404 * 1.5798||+||0.892 * 0.5431||+||0.115 * 0.7383|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.5487||+||4.679 * -0.5379||-||0.327 * 1.539|
|This Year (Dec15) TTM:||Last Year (Dec14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $79.9 Mil.|
Revenue was 172.292 + 212.393 + 214.447 + 255.099 = $854.2 Mil.
Gross Profit was -492.636 + -314.409 + -419.666 + 113.967 = $-1,112.7 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $140.3 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,808.5 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,581.1 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $354.8 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $35.3 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $150.9 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $927.7 Mil.
Net Income was -309.337 + -205.281 + -274.389 + -248.354 = $-1,037.4 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 13.435 + 8.266 + -1.895 + 6.584 = $26.4 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 65.462 + 123.876 + 97.297 + 160.309 = $446.9 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $189.8 Mil.
Revenue was 378.551 + 400.974 + 405.431 + 387.988 = $1,572.9 Mil.
Gross Profit was -89.796 + 103.983 + 113.973 + 202.809 = $331.0 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $252.5 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,473.7 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $4,133.4 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $404.9 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $42.0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $304.2 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $812.2 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(79.941 / 854.231)||/||(189.812 / 1572.944)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(-314.409 / 1572.944)||/||(-492.636 / 854.231)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (140.258 + 2581.127) / 2808.509)||/||(1 - (252.491 + 4133.391) / 4473.728)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(404.943 / (404.943 + 4133.391))||/||(354.83 / (354.83 + 2581.127))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(35.345 / 854.231)||/||(42.023 / 1572.944)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((927.662 + 150.891) / 2808.509)||/||((812.163 + 304.171) / 4473.728)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-1037.361 - 26.39||-||446.944)||/||2808.509|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Unit Corp has a M-score of -6.29 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Unit Corp Annual Data
Unit Corp Quarterly Data