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United Parcel Service Inc (UPS) (NYSE:UPS)
Beneish M-Score
-2.74 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

United Parcel Service Inc (UPS) has a M-score of -2.74 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

UPS' s 10-Year Beneish M-Score Range
Min: -3.65   Max: -0.52
Current: -2.74

-3.65
-0.52

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of United Parcel Service Inc (UPS) was -0.52. The lowest was -3.65. And the median was -2.79.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of United Parcel Service Inc (UPS) for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 1.0376+0.528 * 1.001+0.404 * 0.8903+0.892 * 1.0359+0.115 * 1.0011
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 0.8762+4.679 * -0.0606-0.327 * 1.0679
=-2.74

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Jun14) TTM:Last Year (Jun13) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $5,845 Mil.
Revenue was 14268 + 13779 + 14976 + 13521 = $56,544 Mil.
Gross Profit was 10718 + 10273 + 13353 + 10236 = $44,580 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $12,341 Mil.
Total Assets was $34,861 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $17,787 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,868 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $31,198 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $8,337 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $9,940 Mil.
Net Income was 454 + 911 + 1167 + 1097 = $3,629 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 25 + 0 + 10 + 2 = $37 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -435 + 2267 + 2244 + 1629 = $5,705 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $5,438 Mil.
Revenue was 13507 + 13434 + 14571 + 13071 = $54,583 Mil.
Gross Profit was 10250 + 10086 + 12909 + 9833 = $43,078 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $13,226 Mil.
Total Assets was $36,703 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $17,880 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,880 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $34,371 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $7,183 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $10,837 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(5845 / 56544) / (5438 / 54583)
=0.10337083 / 0.09962809
=1.0376

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(10273 / 54583) / (10718 / 56544)
=0.78922009 / 0.78841256
=1.001

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (12341 + 17787) / 34861) / (1 - (13226 + 17880) / 36703)
=0.13576776 / 0.15249435
=0.8903

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=56544 / 54583
=1.0359

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(1880 / (1880 + 17880)) / (1868 / (1868 + 17787))
=0.0951417 / 0.09503943
=1.0011

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(31198 / 56544) / (34371 / 54583)
=0.55174731 / 0.62970156
=0.8762

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((9940 + 8337) / 34861) / ((10837 + 7183) / 36703)
=0.52428215 / 0.49096804
=1.0679

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(3629 - 37 - 5705) / 34861
=-0.0606

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

United Parcel Service Inc (UPS) has a M-score of -2.74 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

United Parcel Service Inc (UPS) Annual Data

Dec04Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13
DSRI 1.17871.00470.881.10020.95821.03560.95991.0388
GMI 1.06471.00771.03740.95531.02831.02590.96810.9953
AQI 0.89631.15990.60720.97050.95141.00051.00130.9706
SGI 1.09251.04511.03610.87981.09381.07191.01921.0242
DEPI 1.04911.04940.99521.02010.94791.01740.97630.999
SGAI 0.99451.19650.83791.08470.81280.96761.16990.8472
LVGI 11.49771.10240.95461.04361.040.98770.9892
TATA -0.063-0.0215-0.1725-0.0986-0.0149-0.0955-0.1655-0.0815
M-score -2.53-2.66-3.51-2.99-2.50-2.82-3.32-2.79

United Parcel Service Inc (UPS) Quarterly Data

Mar12Jun12Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14
DSRI 0.96930.94440.99750.95990.98240.96760.98451.03881.00811.0376
GMI 1.02091.011.00680.9580.96240.96920.96521.00581.00211.001
AQI 1.02660.97860.87731.00131.09381.16221.22030.97060.85390.8903
SGI 1.06471.04731.0261.01921.01431.01421.02441.02421.0251.0359
DEPI 1.00160.98550.98370.97630.97820.98320.98730.9990.99981.0011
SGAI 1.01640.98991.05781.10151.13041.18271.12250.84140.85180.8762
LVGI 0.98921.00241.03950.98770.96980.93550.91020.98921.02311.0679
TATA -0.1182-0.1012-0.0911-0.1655-0.1537-0.1631-0.153-0.0815-0.0966-0.0606
M-score -2.98-2.97-2.96-3.31-3.20-3.22-3.11-2.78-2.94-2.74
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