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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of United States Lime & Minerals Inc was -2.07. The lowest was -3.90. And the median was -2.81.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of United States Lime & Minerals Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9981||+||0.528 * 1.0112||+||0.404 * 0.9833||+||0.892 * 1.0109||+||0.115 * 0.9682|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9677||+||4.679 * -0.0958||-||0.327 * 0.8998|
|This Year (Sep16) TTM:||Last Year (Sep15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $19.4 Mil.|
Revenue was 38.65 + 32.88 + 33.586 + 31.294 = $136.4 Mil.
Gross Profit was 10.569 + 7.241 + 7.848 + 5.47 = $31.1 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $101.8 Mil.
Total Assets was $205.3 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $103.4 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $16.1 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $9.3 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $7.5 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
Net Income was 6.081 + 3.687 + 4.066 + 2.286 = $16.1 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.115 + 0.08 + 0.043 + 0.082 = $0.3 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 10.953 + 7.035 + 7.882 + 9.594 = $35.5 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $19.2 Mil.
Revenue was 37.029 + 32.45 + 30.064 + 35.401 = $134.9 Mil.
Gross Profit was 10.367 + 7.013 + 5.864 + 7.893 = $31.1 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $88.8 Mil.
Total Assets was $193.5 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $104.6 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $15.7 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $9.5 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $7.8 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(19.385 / 136.41)||/||(19.214 / 134.944)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(31.137 / 134.944)||/||(31.128 / 136.41)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (101.756 + 103.43) / 205.33)||/||(1 - (88.781 + 104.564) / 193.483)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(15.728 / (15.728 + 104.564))||/||(16.149 / (16.149 + 103.43))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(9.326 / 136.41)||/||(9.534 / 134.944)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 7.492) / 205.33)||/||((0 + 7.846) / 193.483)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(16.12 - 0.32||-||35.464)||/||205.33|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
United States Lime & Minerals Inc has a M-score of -2.89 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
United States Lime & Minerals Inc Annual Data
United States Lime & Minerals Inc Quarterly Data