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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Usana Health Sciences Inc was 10000000.00. The lowest was -10000000.00. And the median was -2.68.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Usana Health Sciences Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1||+||0.528 * 1.0046||+||0.404 * 1.034||+||0.892 * 1.1059||+||0.115 * 0.9609|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9948||+||4.679 * -0.0369||-||0.327 * 1.1308|
|This Year (Jun16) TTM:||Last Year (Jun15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $0.0 Mil.|
Revenue was 258.514 + 240.449 + 232.585 + 233.292 = $964.8 Mil.
Gross Profit was 212.544 + 197.529 + 192.404 + 192.244 = $794.7 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $221.9 Mil.
Total Assets was $409.7 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $94.7 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $12.1 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $650.7 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $128.0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
Net Income was 25.762 + 22.299 + 23.967 + 25.609 = $97.6 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.072 + -0.732 + 0.045 + 0.078 = $-0.5 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 34.506 + 13.471 + 36.949 + 28.35 = $113.3 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $0.0 Mil.
Revenue was 233.244 + 219.378 + 227.87 + 191.944 = $872.4 Mil.
Gross Profit was 193.155 + 181.014 + 190.354 + 157.359 = $721.9 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $244.8 Mil.
Total Assets was $408.5 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $73.9 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $9.0 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $591.4 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $112.9 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(0 / 964.84)||/||(0 / 872.436)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(721.882 / 872.436)||/||(794.721 / 964.84)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (221.861 + 94.729) / 409.662)||/||(1 - (244.815 + 73.939) / 408.51)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(9.032 / (9.032 + 73.939))||/||(12.102 / (12.102 + 94.729))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(650.665 / 964.84)||/||(591.43 / 872.436)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 127.978) / 409.662)||/||((0 + 112.856) / 408.51)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(97.637 - -0.537||-||113.276)||/||409.662|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Usana Health Sciences Inc has a M-score of -2.59 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Usana Health Sciences Inc Annual Data
Usana Health Sciences Inc Quarterly Data