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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Veeco Instruments Inc was 0.22. The lowest was -5.15. And the median was -2.61.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Veeco Instruments Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.7649||+||0.528 * 0.8929||+||0.404 * 1.0055||+||0.892 * 1.1407||+||0.115 * 0.8406|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.8397||+||4.679 * -0.0245||-||0.327 * 0.8754|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $56.1 Mil.|
Revenue was 78.011 + 106.544 + 140.744 + 131.41 = $456.7 Mil.
Gross Profit was 31.956 + 38.785 + 54.25 + 49.069 = $174.1 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $517.5 Mil.
Total Assets was $861.8 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $80.2 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $37.7 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $87.1 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $157.1 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1.1 Mil.
Net Income was -15.533 + -9.787 + 5.306 + -8.386 = $-28.4 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0.0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -18.798 + -6.061 + 9.889 + 7.673 = $-7.3 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $64.3 Mil.
Revenue was 98.341 + 113.569 + 93.341 + 95.122 = $400.4 Mil.
Gross Profit was 35.136 + 37.874 + 32.558 + 30.673 = $136.2 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $574.7 Mil.
Total Assets was $942.1 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $80.3 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $29.5 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $91.0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $196.1 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1.5 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(56.089 / 456.709)||/||(64.285 / 400.373)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(38.785 / 400.373)||/||(31.956 / 456.709)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (517.488 + 80.225) / 861.756)||/||(1 - (574.717 + 80.301) / 942.09)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(29.526 / (29.526 + 80.301))||/||(37.719 / (37.719 + 80.225))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(87.144 / 456.709)||/||(90.975 / 400.373)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1.104 + 157.077) / 861.756)||/||((1.451 + 196.093) / 942.09)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-28.4 - 0||-||-7.297)||/||861.756|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Veeco Instruments Inc has a M-score of -2.69 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Veeco Instruments Inc Annual Data
Veeco Instruments Inc Quarterly Data