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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Veeco Instruments Inc was 0.22. The lowest was -5.15. And the median was -2.62.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Veeco Instruments Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.5113||+||0.528 * 0.9276||+||0.404 * 0.8707||+||0.892 * 0.7135||+||0.115 * 0.8418|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.1863||+||4.679 * -0.1263||-||0.327 * 1.0796|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.
|This Year (Sep16) TTM:||Last Year (Sep15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $50.5 Mil.|
Revenue was 85.482 + 75.348 + 78.011 + 106.544 = $345.4 Mil.
Gross Profit was 33.455 + 31.439 + 31.956 + 38.785 = $135.6 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $508.4 Mil.
Total Assets was $765.1 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $57.6 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $35.1 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $79.3 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $147.8 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.9 Mil.
Net Income was -69.598 + -32.082 + -15.533 + -9.787 = $-127.0 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0.0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 6.823 + -12.333 + -18.798 + -6.061 = $-30.4 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $46.8 Mil.
Revenue was 140.744 + 131.41 + 98.341 + 113.569 = $484.1 Mil.
Gross Profit was 54.25 + 49.069 + 35.136 + 37.874 = $176.3 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $563.5 Mil.
Total Assets was $918.7 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $80.5 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $37.7 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $93.6 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $164.1 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1.3 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(50.463 / 345.385)||/||(46.798 / 484.064)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(176.329 / 484.064)||/||(135.635 / 345.385)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (508.36 + 57.557) / 765.068)||/||(1 - (563.513 + 80.521) / 918.689)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(37.69 / (37.69 + 80.521))||/||(35.094 / (35.094 + 57.557))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(79.265 / 345.385)||/||(93.642 / 484.064)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0.92 + 147.761) / 765.068)||/||((1.281 + 164.092) / 918.689)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-127 - 0||-||-30.369)||/||765.068|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Veeco Instruments Inc has a M-score of -3.02 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Veeco Instruments Inc Annual Data
Veeco Instruments Inc Quarterly Data