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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Valero Energy Corp was -1.71. The lowest was -3.27. And the median was -2.18.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Valero Energy Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.6765||+||0.528 * 0.7337||+||0.404 * 1.0034||+||0.892 * 0.9476||+||0.115 * 1.0548|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0079||+||4.679 * -0.0144||-||0.327 * 0.8436|
|This Year (Dec14) TTM:||Last Year (Dec13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $5,472 Mil.|
Revenue was 27859 + 34408 + 34914 + 33663 = $130,844 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2435 + 2280 + 1669 + 1931 = $8,315 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $16,614 Mil.
Total Assets was $45,550 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $26,735 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,690 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $724 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $9,980 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $5,780 Mil.
Net Income was 1155 + 1059 + 588 + 828 = $3,630 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 9 + 11 + 12 + 15 = $47 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 997 + 1866 + 1134 + 244 = $4,241 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $8,536 Mil.
Revenue was 34429 + 36137 + 34034 + 33474 = $138,074 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2178 + 1150 + 1443 + 1667 = $6,438 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $19,277 Mil.
Total Assets was $47,260 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $25,707 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,720 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $758 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $13,123 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $6,261 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(5472 / 130844)||/||(8536 / 138074)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(2280 / 138074)||/||(2435 / 130844)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (16614 + 26735) / 45550)||/||(1 - (19277 + 25707) / 47260)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(1720 / (1720 + 25707))||/||(1690 / (1690 + 26735))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(724 / 130844)||/||(758 / 138074)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((5780 + 9980) / 45550)||/||((6261 + 13123) / 47260)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(3630 - 47||-||4241)||/||45550|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Valero Energy Corp has a M-score of -2.97 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Valero Energy Corp Annual Data
Valero Energy Corp Quarterly Data