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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Vulcan Materials Co was -1.94. The lowest was -2.95. And the median was -2.68.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Vulcan Materials Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.1377||+||0.528 * 0.8995||+||0.404 * 0.9829||+||0.892 * 1.0498||+||0.115 * 0.9969|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.046||+||4.679 * -0.0267||-||0.327 * 0.9888|
|This Year (Dec16) TTM:||Last Year (Dec15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $474 Mil.|
Revenue was 872.974 + 1008.14 + 956.825 + 754.728 = $3,593 Mil.
Gross Profit was 239.705 + 304.209 + 292.184 + 164.718 = $1,001 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,137 Mil.
Total Assets was $8,471 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $3,261 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $285 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $315 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $372 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,983 Mil.
Net Income was 137.052 + 139.765 + 123.75 + 18.924 = $419 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.619 + 0.99 + 0.029 + -0.694 = $1 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 299.14 + 242.915 + 59.676 + 42.857 = $645 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $397 Mil.
Revenue was 857.285 + 1038.46 + 895.143 + 631.293 = $3,422 Mil.
Gross Profit was 253.929 + 291.29 + 234.449 + 77.865 = $858 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,085 Mil.
Total Assets was $8,302 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $3,156 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $275 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $287 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $353 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,980 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(474.496 / 3592.667)||/||(397.287 / 3422.181)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(857.533 / 3422.181)||/||(1000.816 / 3592.667)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1137.182 + 3261.438) / 8471.475)||/||(1 - (1084.591 + 3156.29) / 8301.632)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(274.823 / (274.823 + 3156.29))||/||(284.94 / (284.94 + 3261.438))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(314.986 / 3592.667)||/||(286.844 / 3422.181)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1982.751 + 372.244) / 8471.475)||/||((1980.334 + 353.479) / 8301.632)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(419.491 - 0.944||-||644.588)||/||8471.475|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Vulcan Materials Co has a M-score of -2.50 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Vulcan Materials Co Annual Data
Vulcan Materials Co Quarterly Data