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VMWare Inc (NYSE:VMW)
Beneish M-Score
-2.72 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

VMWare Inc has a M-score of -2.73 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

VMW' s 10-Year Beneish M-Score Range
Min: -3.46   Max: -2.4
Current: -2.72

-3.46
-2.4

During the past 11 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of VMWare Inc was -2.40. The lowest was -3.46. And the median was -2.82.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of VMWare Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 1.0345+0.528 * 1.0184+0.404 * 0.9302+0.892 * 1.1507+0.115 * 1.1192
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1.0875+4.679 * -0.0823-0.327 * 1.0193
=-2.73

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Mar15) TTM:Last Year (Mar14) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $988 Mil.
Revenue was 1511 + 1702 + 1515 + 1457 = $6,185 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1268 + 1447 + 1273 + 1239 = $5,227 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $8,705 Mil.
Total Assets was $14,807 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,059 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $338 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,932 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,774 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,500 Mil.
Net Income was 196 + 326 + 194 + 167 = $883 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -2 + -19 + 9 + 0 = $-12 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 683 + 415 + 606 + 409 = $2,113 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $830 Mil.
Revenue was 1360 + 1483 + 1289 + 1243 = $5,375 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1159 + 1291 + 1106 + 1070 = $4,626 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $7,797 Mil.
Total Assets was $13,699 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $886 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $329 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,343 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,287 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,500 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(988 / 6185) / (830 / 5375)
=0.15974131 / 0.1544186
=1.0345

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(1447 / 5375) / (1268 / 6185)
=0.86065116 / 0.84510914
=1.0184

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (8705 + 1059) / 14807) / (1 - (7797 + 886) / 13699)
=0.34058216 / 0.36615811
=0.9302

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=6185 / 5375
=1.1507

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(329 / (329 + 886)) / (338 / (338 + 1059))
=0.27078189 / 0.24194703
=1.1192

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(2932 / 6185) / (2343 / 5375)
=0.47405012 / 0.43590698
=1.0875

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((1500 + 3774) / 14807) / ((1500 + 3287) / 13699)
=0.35618289 / 0.34944157
=1.0193

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(883 - -12 - 2113) / 14807
=-0.0823

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

VMWare Inc has a M-score of -2.73 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

VMWare Inc Annual Data

Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14
DSRI 0.83941.46880.81511.08931.06650.93741.075
GMI 0.99611.01950.9940.99080.98990.9811.0139
AQI 0.88771.08931.04640.93241.26020.85731.0766
SGI 1.41881.0761.41181.31841.22241.13071.159
DEPI 0.99290.83240.86171.02121.07871.22071.1404
SGAI 1.00481.05530.9580.96681.00720.98151.0953
LVGI 0.83360.99380.95710.99720.97110.95191.1896
TATA -0.1394-0.1578-0.1181-0.1554-0.1111-0.1257-0.0855
M-score -2.90-2.70-2.81-2.86-2.62-3.03-2.69

VMWare Inc Quarterly Data

Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15
DSRI 1.06650.98721.08071.0060.93760.94681.03441.04631.07491.0345
GMI 0.98970.99130.9870.98380.98120.98270.99171.00161.01371.0184
AQI 1.26021.36071.29650.83390.85730.99531.04321.05961.07660.9302
SGI 1.22251.19161.16281.14721.13051.13371.14981.15931.1591.1507
DEPI 1.08041.11321.16071.21371.21881.261.27061.21211.14041.1192
SGAI 1.00771.02381.02251.00540.98080.99161.02791.05521.0951.0875
LVGI 0.97111.00350.98470.9630.95191.13871.18031.22841.18961.0193
TATA -0.1109-0.1206-0.1255-0.1327-0.1245-0.1158-0.1074-0.1063-0.0844-0.0823
M-score -2.62-2.74-2.72-3.00-3.03-2.98-2.84-2.83-2.69-2.73
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