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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 8 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Verisk Analytics Inc was -2.10. The lowest was -2.93. And the median was -2.67.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Verisk Analytics Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.3347||+||0.528 * 1.0012||+||0.404 * 1.3039||+||0.892 * 1.1256||+||0.115 * 1.1021|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0206||+||4.679 * -0.0319||-||0.327 * 1.0632|
|This Year (Jun15) TTM:||Last Year (Jun14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $267 Mil.|
Revenue was 497.65 + 459.397 + 464.864 + 448.665 = $1,871 Mil.
Gross Profit was 302.454 + 275.181 + 271.282 + 267.792 = $1,117 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $610 Mil.
Total Assets was $5,776 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $386 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $169 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $263 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,710 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,294 Mil.
Net Income was 163.32 + 98.686 + 97.37 + 99.015 = $458 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 84.966 + -0.538 + 0 + 0 = $84 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 84.511 + 270.99 + 110.817 + 91.8 = $558 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $178 Mil.
Revenue was 423.554 + 409.643 + 416.723 + 411.927 = $1,662 Mil.
Gross Profit was 251.084 + 239.97 + 246.567 + 255.621 = $993 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $705 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,675 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $273 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $138 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $229 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $609 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,136 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(267.379 / 1870.576)||/||(177.973 / 1661.847)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(275.181 / 1661.847)||/||(302.454 / 1870.576)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (609.987 + 386.093) / 5775.663)||/||(1 - (704.563 + 272.875) / 2675.277)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(138.193 / (138.193 + 272.875))||/||(169.463 / (169.463 + 386.093))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(262.696 / 1870.576)||/||(228.67 / 1661.847)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((2293.864 + 1710.053) / 5775.663)||/||((1135.645 + 608.743) / 2675.277)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(458.391 - 84.428||-||558.118)||/||5775.663|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Verisk Analytics Inc has a M-score of -2.10 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Verisk Analytics Inc Annual Data
Verisk Analytics Inc Quarterly Data