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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Valeant Pharmaceuticals International Inc was 0.78. The lowest was -3.20. And the median was -2.43.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Valeant Pharmaceuticals International Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.8645||+||0.528 * 0.9211||+||0.404 * 0.9684||+||0.892 * 1.4322||+||0.115 * 1.088|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0839||+||4.679 * -0.0531||-||0.327 * 0.9702|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Dec14) TTM:||Last Year (Dec13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $2,076 Mil.|
Revenue was 2280 + 2056.2 + 2041.1 + 1886.2 = $8,264 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1690.2 + 1495.4 + 1455.5 + 1367.8 = $6,009 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,193 Mil.
Total Assets was $26,353 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,311 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,738 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,026 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,731 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $15,254 Mil.
Net Income was 534.9 + 275.4 + 125.8 + -22.6 = $914 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 169.7 + -49.6 + 5.9 + -107.1 = $19 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 815.7 + 618.7 + 376 + 484.3 = $2,295 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,676 Mil.
Revenue was 2063.8 + 1541.7 + 1095.7 + 1068.4 = $5,770 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1331.9 + 966.5 + 798 + 768.1 = $3,865 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,886 Mil.
Total Assets was $27,971 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,234 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $2,016 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,305 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,513 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $17,163 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(2075.8 / 8263.5)||/||(1676.4 / 5769.6)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1495.4 / 5769.6)||/||(1690.2 / 8263.5)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (4193.1 + 1310.5) / 26353)||/||(1 - (3885.9 + 1234.2) / 27970.8)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(2015.8 / (2015.8 + 1234.2))||/||(1737.6 / (1737.6 + 1310.5))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(2026.3 / 8263.5)||/||(1305.2 / 5769.6)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((15253.7 + 2730.8) / 26353)||/||((17162.9 + 2512.5) / 27970.8)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(913.5 - 18.9||-||2294.7)||/||26353|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Valeant Pharmaceuticals International Inc has a M-score of -2.52 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Valeant Pharmaceuticals International Inc Annual Data
Valeant Pharmaceuticals International Inc Quarterly Data